Toward an Online Listing of Research Resources for Petersburg

_____. Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia. Richmond, 1808–___.

_____. Acts of the General Assembly Relative to Jurisdictions and Powers of the Town of Petersburg To Which Are Added the Ordinances, Bye-Laws, and Regulations of the Corporation. Petersburg: Edward Pescud, 1824.

_____. Act to Incorporate the Petersburg Rail Road Company. Petersburg, 1830.

_____. A Guide to the Fortifications and Battlefields around Petersburg. Petersburg: Daily Index Job Print, for Jarratt’s Hotel, 1866.

[CW; Postbellum.]

_____. Annual Register and Virginian Repository for the Year 1800. Petersburg, 1801.

_____. Charter and By-Laws of the Petersburg Benevolent Mechanic Association. . . Revised October, 1900. Petersburg: Fenn & Owen, 1900.

_____. Charter, Constitution snd By-Laws. Petersburg Benevolent Mechanic Association. Petersburg, 1858, 1877.

_____. City of Petersburg, Virginia: The Book of Its Chamber of Commerce. Petersburg: George W. Englehardt, 1894. Rare. PPL.

[Photographs and etchings of local businessmen and their buildings, with brief company history.]

_____. Civil War Documents, Granville County, N.C. 2 vols. Oxford, North Carolina: Granville County Historical Society, n.d. [CW.]

_____. Contributions to a History of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion.Baltimore: Butternut and Blue, 2000. [CW.]

_____. Cottom’s New Virginia and North Carolina Almanack, for the Year of Our Lord 1820, Calculated by Joseph Case, of Orange County, Virginia.; Adapted to the Latitude and Meridian of Richmond. Published Annually by Peter Corrom and for Sale at His Book Store in Richmond, and by Richard Cottom, Petersburg, 1819. Richmond and Petersburg: Peter Cottom, 1819. Available to read online at PUL.

_____. “Demographic and Economic Trends in the City of Petersburg.” A report prepared for use in Petersburg’s Preservation Plan. Department of Planning and Community Development, 1992-93.

_____. Exploring a Common Past: Researching the Underground Railroad. 3rd Edition. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, Park History Program, 2000.

[Basic for anyone who wants to do research about the Underground Railroad. The case study in the third part is a study of the Hill family of Petersburg and Richmond and uses the Colson-Hill Family Papers at Virginia State University. Marie Tyler-McGraw served as director of research for the project. Sarah Amsler, a National Park Service intern, conducted much of the primary research and created the organizational structure. Other key contributors included Tara Morrison, Terry Childs, Hillary Russell, and Carol Kammen. Includes “Historic Context for the Underground Railroad,” pp. 3-12; “Using Primary Resources: The Historians’ Toolbox,”, pp. 13-30; “Tracking Escape: A Case Study,” pp. 31-42; and “A Review of Sources,” pp. 43-51. Table of contents. RDW]

_____. Historical Census Browser, University of Virginia, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center: http://fisher.lib.virginia,edu/collections/stats/histcensus/index.html (accessed 8 August 2006).

_____. History of the Colored Volunteer Infantry of Virginia 1871-99. privately printed, n.d. Copy property of Mrs. Ursula Ryan, Petersburg, 1960.

_____. Library of Southern Literature. Atlanta, 1907–1909.

_____. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, 1880–1901.

[“Although papers and reports pertaining to Petersbug may be found in many volumes, the following volumes of Series I are the most useful: XXXVI, Parts I, II, and III; XL, Parts I, II, and III; XLII, Parst I, II, andI II; XLIII, Part III; XLVI, Parts I, I, and III; and LI, part II.” Wyatt]

_____. Petersburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg. Boston, 1906.

_____. Petersburg National Battlefield: Final General Management Plan. Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement.. December 2004.

_____. “Petersburg, Virginia Community Improvement Program. 1971–1977.” Petersburg Redevlopment and Housing Authority, 1971.

_____. “Rates of Transportation on the Petersburg, Greensville & Roanoke, an Raleigh and Gaston Railroads: EStablished May 1. 1840. Petersburg: s.n., 1840 1 sheet/broadside. Available online at PUL.

_____. Report of the City of Petersburg Virginia, For the period September 15th, 1920 to June 30th, 1923, Being a complete report of the city government under the council-manager plan. Petersburg: The City Council, 1923.

_____. Report of the Committee of the Common Council . . . WIth Reference to Obtaining a Supply of Water. Petersburg, 1853.

_____. Report of the Proceedings of the Late Jubilee in Jamestown. Petersburg, 1807.

_____. Southern Historical Society Papers. Richmond, 1876–.

[“Especially volumes 2, 5, 10, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37.” Wyatt]

_____. Specifications for Building the Custom-House and Post Office at Petersburg, Virginia. Washington, 1855.

_____. Supplement to the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 70 vols. Wilmington, North Caroline: Broadfoot, 1994–2000. [CW.]

_____. “Supporting Information for an Appeal for Major Disaster Declaration.” A paper prepared by the City of Petersburg for relief after the 1993 tornado. 1993.

_____. The General Military Hospital for North Carolina Troops in Petersburg, Virginia. Raleigh: Strother & Marcom Book and Job Printers, 1861. Electronic edition, in both HTML anf SGML formats. Chapel Hill: University of Noreth Carolina, Academic Affairs Library, 1999. Documenting the American South. The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865. UNC and Duke.

_____. The Negro in Virginia. Compiled by Workers of the Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Virginia. New York: Hastings House, 1940.

_____. The Negro in Virginia. Compiled by Workers of the Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Virginia. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969. Reprinted from a copy at Hampton Institute, c. 1940.

_____. The Negro in Virginia. Compiled by Workers of the Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Virginia. Winston-Salem, North Carolina: John Blair, Publishers, 1994. Foreword with endnotes by Charles L. Perdue, Jr. Preface by Roscoe E. Lewis, Supervisor of Negro Workers.Table of contents, bibliography, index. RDW]

_____. The South in the Building of the Nation. Richmond, 1909.

_____. The Virginia and North Carolina Almanack, for the Year of Our Lord 1813 . . . calculated by Benjamin Bates. Petersburg: John Somervell, and Richmond: Thomas Ritchie, 1812. Microform available at PUL.

_____. Thomson’s Mercantile and Professional Directory. Baltimore: William Thomson, 1851.

_____. Trial of William Dandridge Epes, for the Murder of Francis Adolphus Muir, Dinwiddie County, Virginia: Including Testimony Submitted in the Case, the Speeches of Counsel, &c.: To Which Is Added the Confessions of the Prisoner, an Account of His Execution, &c.&c. Petersburg: J.M.H. Brunet, 1849. New-York Historical Society. [76 pp.]

_____. “Virginia Consolidated Milling Company Book. Two volumes, unpublished. Rare. Petersburg Public Library.

_____. Washingtoniana, A Collection of Papers Relative to the Death and Character of General George Washington. Petersburg, 1800.

Abbot, W.W. A Chronology, 1585–1783: “To Pass the Time Away.” Jamrstown 350th Anniversary Hisrotical Booklet, no. 2. Wiiliamsburg: Virginia’s 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957. Reprints: Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1970. Baltimore: Clearfield Co., 1994. [76 pp.]

Abbott, J.S.C. North and South. New York, 1860.

Adams, Henry. John Randolph: A Biography. A New Edition with Primary Documents and an Introduction by Robert McColley. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. Originally published, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1882. Many editions by Houghton, Mifflin and reprints, including and edition with an Introduction by Robert McColley (New York: Chelsea House, 1981) and another with an Introduction by Milton Cantor (Gloucester, Mass.: P. Smith, 1969, c. 1961).
[Stem to stern an attack on John Randolph, who had hated Henry Adams’ forebears John and John Quincy Adams, and had lost no opportunity to attack them, but a very interesting clash between world views amd brilliant minds. RDW]
[John Randolph of Roanoke was one of the dominant politicians on the national scene in the first three decades of the 19th century. He grew up largely at Matoax (the Randolph Farm), now part of Virginia State University. His step-father, St. George Tucker, taught his children to hate slavery, and two of his step-sons, John Randolph of Roanoke and Richard Randolph of Bizarre, freed all of their slaves in their wills, providing them also with property. The will of John Randolph of Roanoke was contested, with the last hearings on these challenges held by the Petersburg Circuit Court in 1845. Has anyone studied this challenge?]

Adams, J.C. “Battle of the Crater.” National Tribune (25 June 1903).

Adams, Stephen. The Best and Worst Country in the World: Perspectives on the Early Virginia Landscape. Under the Sign of Nature: Explorations in Ecocriticism. Charlottesvile: University Press of Virginia, 2001. [Virginia Background. Geological history; Virginia Indians; the Spanish in Virginia; the Roanoke colony; the Virginia colony to 1700. Illustrations, maps, notes, biliography, index. RDW]

Agassiz, George R., ed. Meade’s Headquarters, 1863–1865: Letters of Colonel Theodore Lyman from the Wilderness to Appomattox. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1922. [CW.]

Allardice, Bruce S. More Generals in Gray. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995. [CW.]

Alexander, Adele Logan. “White House Confidante of Mres. Lincoln.” American Visions (Feb.–Mar., 1995): 18-19.

Alexander, Edward Porter. Military Memoirs of a Confederate: A Critical Narrative. New Yok: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1907. [CW.]

Alexander, James W. The Life of Archibald Alexander. New York, 1854.

Allen, Oliver E. “Williamsburg on the Subway.” American Heritage Magazine 42 (May/June 1991). Online at,
[The section on the Gracie Mansion, on the East River in Manhattan, discusses Archibald Gracie, formerly a tobacco merchant in Petersburg, and his relationship to the house. His grandson Archibald died as a Confederate general from Alabama during the Siege of Petersburg. RDW]

Allmendinger, David F. Incidents of My Life: Edmund Ruffin’s Autobiographical Essays. Virginia Historical Society Documents. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1990.

Alvord, Clarence Walworth, and Lee Bidgood. The First Exporations of the Trans-Allegheny Region by the Virginians, 1650–1674. Cleveland, Ohio: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1912.
[Contains the text of “The Discovery of New Britaine” (Abraham Wood and Edward Bland to the falls of the Roanoke in North Carolina, 1650); “The Discoveries of John Lederer” (1669 and 1670, the Blue Ridge and North Carolina); John Clayton’s Transcript of the “Journal of Robert Fallam” [Hallam] (the expedition of “Batts and Fallam” [Batte and Hallam] to the west, including the discovery of the New River, 1671); and the “Letter of Abraham Wood to John Richards on August 22, 1674” (Needham’s and Arthur’s exploration to the southwest, 1673–1674). Table of contents, illustrations, maps, footnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Ames, Susie May. Reading, Writing and Arithmetic in Virginia, 1607–1699: Other Cultural Topics. James-town 350th Anniversary Historical Booklets, no. 15. Williamsburg: Virginia’s 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957.
[76 pp. Plates, bibliography.]

Anburey, Thomas. Travels through the Confederation. New York: New York Times and Arno Press, 1969.

Anburey, Thomas. Travels Through the Interior Parts of America. London, 1789.
[Anburey visits Petersburg.]

Anderson, James S.M. The History of the Church of England in the Colonies and Foreign Dependencies of the British Empire. Londom, 1856.

Andrews, Charles McLean, ed. Narratives of the Insurrection, 1675–1690. Original Narratives in American History. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915.
[“Includes three accounts of Bacon’s Rebellion with descriptions of the siege and burning of Jamestown: 1) T. M. [Thomas Mathew], “The Beginning, Progress and Conclusion of Bacons Rebellion in Virginia in the Years 1675 and 1676,” 1705, Library of Congress. Mathew, a merchant-planter in Northumberland County, represented Stafford County in the 1676 session of the House of Burgesses and was an eyewitness to many events he described. His narrative has been printed in several sources (see Andrews, p. 14). 2) [“The History of Bacon’s and Ingram’s Rebellion,” 1676], Virginia Historical Society. The unknown author evidently was a Virginian who was familiar with the course of the rebellion and obtained some of his evidence as an eyewitness. Some leaves of the document are missing from the beginning and the end. Two versions have been printed in Massachusetts Historical Society publications (see Andrews, pp. 45-46). 3) “A True Narrative of the Rise, Progresse, and Cessation of the Late Rebellion in Virginia, Most Humbly and Impartially Reported by His Majestyes Commissioners Appointed to Enquire into the Affaires of the Said Colony,” 1677, two copies: Public Record Office (C.O. 5/1371) and Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge. The report was signed by commissioners John Berry and Francis Moryson. The volumes in which the copies are to be found at the PRO and at Cambridge also contain copies of many letters and papers written or received by the commissioners.Reprint: Bowie, Md., Heritage Books, 1992. 414 pp. Jamestown Bibliography.]

Andrews, William L. “Reunion in the Postbellum Slave Narrative: Frederick Douglas and Elizabeth Keckley.” Black American Literature Forum, 23 (Spring 1989): 5-16.

Andews, William L. “The Changing Moral Discourse of Nineteenth-Century African American Women’s Autobiography: Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley.” In De/Colonizing the Subject: The Politics of Gender in Women’s Autobiography. Ed. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. PP. 225-241.

Appleby, Joyce. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York University Press, 1984.

Appleby, Joyce. Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.

Arber, Edward, and A.G. Bradley, eds. Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Edinburgh, 1910.

Archer, Fletcher H. “The Defense of Petersburg.” In War Talks of Confederate Veterans, ed. George S. Bernard. Petersburg: Fenn and Owen, q892.

Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
[Recounts the visit of one set of Freedom Riders to Petersburg, on May 5, 1961. RDW]

Asbury, Francis. The Journal of the Reverend Francis Asbury. New York, 1821.
[Asbury, the first bishop of the Metodist church, frequently preached in Petersburg, and church property in Petersburg was held in his name.]

Atkinson, Thomas P. “Moratuck Papers,” in The Petersburg Index, 1866.
[Atkinson grew up at Mannsfield, on the south bank of the Appomattox west of Petersburg. He was consecrated Episcopal Bishop of North Carolina in 1853, and served in that office for 28 years. His grandmother was a Pleasants, a Quaker, who married Roger Atkinson of Mansfield. “Moratuck” was a nickname for a North Carolinian. RDW]
[“As the Civil War approached, Atkinson provided enlightened and moderate leadership for North Carolina’s Episcopalians. He promoted education by founding a church school for boys in Raleigh and the Ravenscroft School in Asheville. He urged the religious instruction of slaves throughout the state. He argued effectively against using theories of Negro racial inferiority as a basis for defending slavery. Until Lincoln’s call for southern troops to suppress the rebellious South, Atkinson opposed secession in word and deed. Thereafter, however, he put the Episcopal church in North Carolina in the service of the Confederacy. While he was initially opposed to a similar severing of the Protestant Episcopal Church, by October 1861 he came to support southern moves to erect a Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America. At the conclusion of the war, he continued his moderation by becoming one of only two southern bishops to attend the Philadelphia general convention in October 1865 and to participate in plans for the reunification of the church. Soon thereafter, Atkinson announced his intentions to make North Carolina a model for dealing with the problem of freed blacks. In 1866 he placed the operation of black Episcopal churches fully in the hands of black clergymen. Two years later he led the move to open the Episcopal school for blacks near Raleigh that eventually became St. Augustine’s College.” From Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, 1979-1996.]

Avary, Myrta Lockett, ed. A Virginia Girl in the Civil War, 1861–1865. Being a Record of the Actual Experiences of he Wife of a Confederate Officer. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1903. Various reprints available. Available online to read or download at UNC, Documenting the American South,
[Set in part in Petersburg, the home of the “Virginia Girl’s” uncle and husband.]

Avary, Myrta Lockett. Dixie after the War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1937.
[CW; Postbellum.]

Axtell, James, ed. The Indian Peoples of Eastern America: A Documentary History of the Sexes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Axtell, James. The Rise and Fall of the Powhatan Empire: Indians in Seventeenth-Century Virginia. The Foundations of America. Wiliamsburg: Colonial WIlliamsburg Foundation, 1995.
[“Tells the story of the English settlement of Virginia from the perspective of both the colonists and the Indians. Powhatan is seen as a strong leader who used the English presence to enhance his own position among his people. John Smith was the clever commander who saved Jamestown from starvation and kept peace with the Indians. Pocahontas was a link between the two cultures.” 42 pp. Illustrations, maps, portraits, bibliography. Jamestown Bibliography]

Ayers, Edward L. In the Presence of Mine Enemies: War in the Heart of America, 1859–1863. New York: W.W. Norton, 2003.

Ayers, Edward L., and John C. Willis. The Edge of the South: Life in Nineteenth Centurey Virginia. Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 1991.

Bailey, James H. A Century of Catholicism in Historic Petersburg: A History of St. Joseph’s Parish, Petersburg. Petersburg: Catholic Hstorical Society of the Diocese of Richmond, 1942.

Bailey James H. A History of the Diocese of Richmond: The Formative Years. Richmond: Chancery Office, 1956.

Bailey, James H., at al. Old Petersburg. Richmond: Hale Publishing, 1976.
[Introduction and extensive historical notes by James H. Bailey; a few architectural notes by Baxter Bailey; color photographs by Thomas F. Hale.]

Bailey, James H. Pictures of the Past: Petersburg as Seen by the Simpsons, 1819–1895. Petersburg: Fort Henry Branch of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, 1989. [Introductory notes by James H. Bailey; images by William S. Simpson, father and son, 1819-1895.]

Ballou, Daniel R. “The Petersburg Mine.” National Tribune (5 June 1913).

Banister, Anne (Mrs. A[chibald] Campbell Pryor). Incidents in the Life of a Civil War Girl. Blackstone, Virginia: .R. Turner, 1933. [CW.]

Barbour, Philp. Pocahontas and Her World: A Chronicle of America’s First Settlement in which Is Related the Story of the Indians and the Englishmen, Particulalry Captain John Smith, Captain Samuel Argall, and Master John Rolfe. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. [300 pp,. bibliography.]

Barbour, Philip, ed. The Jamestown Voyages under the First Charter, 1606–1609: Documents Relating to the Foundation of Jamestown and the History of the Jamestown Colony up to the Departure of Captain John Smith, Last President of the Council of the Council in Virginia under the First Charter, Early in October, 1609. Hakluyt Society Publications, 2nd ser., nos. 136 and 137. London: CAmbridge University Press for theHakluyt Society, 1969.

Barbour, Philip. The Three Worlds of Captain John Smith. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1964.
[553 pp., illustrations, tables, maps, portraits, bibliography, index.]

Barnes, Diane. Artisan Workers in the Upper South: Petersburg, Virginia, 1820–1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008. Locations: Duke [“Though deeply entrenched in antebellum life, the artisans who lived and worked in Petersburg, Virginia in the 1800s, including carpenters, blacksmiths, coach makers, bakers, and other skilled craftsmen, helped transform their planter-centered agricultural community into one of the most industrialized cities in the Upper South. These mechanics, as the artisans called themselves, successfully lobbied for new railroad lines and other amenities they needed to open their factories and shops, and turned a town whose livelihood once depended almost entirely on tobacco exports into a bustling modern city. In ARTISAN WORKERS IN THE UPPER SOUTH, Diane Barnes closely examines the relationships among Petersburg’s skilled white, free black, and slave mechanics and the roles they played in southern Virginia’s emerging market economy. She demonstrates that, despite studies that emphasize the backwardness of southern development, modern industry and the institution of slavery proved quite compatible in the Upper South.” Duke]

Barnes, Diane. “Southern Artisans, Organization, and the Rise of the Market Economy in Antebellum Petersburg,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 107 (Spring 1999): 159-188.

Barnett, Bernice McNair. “Invisible Southern Black Women in the Civil Rights Movement—The Triple Constraints of Gender, Race, and Class.” Gender & Society 7 (1993): 162-182. [Includes Shirley Sherrod—sister or mother of the Petersburg Sherrods involved with SNCC? RDW]

Bartley, Numan V. The Rise of Massive Resistance: Race and Politics in the South During the 1950’s. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969. Paperback: Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

Barton, Robert. Plug Tobacco and Fine Art. New York, 1932.[Much plug tobacco was manufactured in Petersburg, and many of the labels created to market it were designed and printed in Petersburg. RDW]

Bass, Jack, and Walter D Vries. The Transformation of Southern Politics: Social Change and Political Conssequences Since 1945. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

Bateman, Fred, and Theodore Weiss. A Deplorable Scarcity: The Failure of Industrialization in the Slave Economy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Beale, George W. A Lieutenant of Cavalry in Lee’s Army. Boston: The Gorham Press, 1918. [CW.]

Bearss, Ed. River of Lost Opportunities: The Civil War on the James River 1861–1862. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1995. [Quite pertinent to Petersburg. Deals with operations of the U.S. Navy in the Appomattox and the James. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Bearss, Edward, and Chris Calkins. The Battle of Five Forks. Lynchburg,Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1985.

Bearss, Sara, ed. Dictionary of Virginia Biography. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2000–.

Beeman, Richard R. The Evolution of the Southern Backcountry: A Case STudy of Lunenburg County, Virginia, 1746–1832. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984.

Beers, F.W. Topographical Map of Petersburg, Dinwiddie County, Virginia. Richmond: Southern and Southwestern Surveying and Publishing Company, 1877.

Beers, Henry Putney. The Confederacy: A Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America. Washington: National Archives and Records Administration, 1986. [CW.]

Beller, James W. “The Mine Explosion.” National Tribune (20 June 1889).

Benberry, Cuesta. Always There: The African-American Presence in American Quilts. Louisville: Kentucky Quilt Project, 1992. [Elizabeth Keckley, pp. 40-42, 86.]

Bell, Annie Walker Burns. Third Census of the United States (Year 1810) for the County of Chesterfield. . . . Washington, 1934.

Bennett, William W. Memorials of Methodism in Virginia. Richmond: 1871.

Benson, Susan Williams, ed. Berry Benson’s Civil War Book: Memoirs of a Confederate Scout and Sharpshooter. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992. [CW.]

Berlin, Ira, ed. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861–1867. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Berlin, Ira. Generatons in Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Random House, 1974. Pantheon Books.

Berlin, Ira, and Herbert G. Gutman. “Natives and Immigrants, Free Men and Slaves: Urban Workingmen in the Antebellum American South.” American Historical Review 88 (December 1983): 1175-1200.

Bernard, George S. Civil Service Reform Versus the Spoils System. The Merit Plan for the Filling of Public Offices Advocated in a Series of Articles Originally Published in a Virginia Journal. New York: J.B. Alden, 1885. Available in print and online at PUL. [128 pp.]

Bernard, George S. “Great Battle of the Crater,” Southern Historical Society 2.

Bernard, George S. The Battle of Petersburg in Front of Petersburg, July 30, 1864, A Memorable Day in History: An Address Delivered before the A.P. Hill Camp of Confederate Veterans, Petersburg, Va., in That City, on the 24th of June, 1890. Petersburg: Petersburg Index-Appeal Presses, 1890. Available on microform at PUL. [18 pp.]

Bernard, George S., compiler and ed. War Talks of Confederate Veterans. Compiled and Edited by George S. Bernard . . . . Address Delivered before A.P. Hill Camp of Confederate Veterans of Petersburg, Va., with Additions. Petersburg: Fenn & Owen, Publishers, 1892. Rare. PUL. [335 pp.]

Berry, Thomas S. “The Rise of Flower Milling in Richmond.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 78 (1970): 387-408.

Beverley, Robert. The History of Virginia, In Four Parts. By Robert Beverley, a native and inhabitant of that place. Reprinted from the Authors Second Edition, London, 1722, with an Introduction by Charles Campbell, Author of the Colonial History of Virginia. Richmond: J.W. Randolph, 1855. Available to read online or download, on Google Books. W&M/SL: printed book or microform. [The first edition (London: R. Parker, 1705) uses tougher language in describing historic individuals, and is more satirical in its treatment. The second edition not longer metions the Appamattucks. The four parts are the first settlement of the colony; the natural resources and commerce of fhte colony; the Indians; and the present state of the colony. Beverley, the son-in-law of William Byrd I, patron of the Rev. John Banister, the first professional naturalist in America, incorporated extensive passages, extending many pages, from Banister’s manuscripts in this work, without any kind of acknowledgement. Banister, who resided in the Petersburg area, had been working on a Natural History of Virginia, but his work had been interrupted by his accidental death by gunshot while gathering plants on the Roanoke River. William Byrd I had gathered all of his papers into his Library at Westover, to which Beverley had access. Beveley’s First Edition was published in London in 1705—not long after William Byrd I had died in April 1704, and before William Byrd II had returned from England to take charge of his inherited property. See Ewan, John Banister and His Natural History of Virginia. RDW]

Billings, Warren M. A Little Parliament: The Virgiia General Assembly in the Seventeenth Century. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2004. [312 pp.]

Billings, Warren M. Jamestown and the Founding of the Nation. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania: Thomas Publications, 1991. [144 pp., illustrations, bibliography.]

Billings, Warren M., ed. The Old Dominion in the Seventeenth Century: A Documentary History of Virginia, 1606–1689. Documenting Problems in Early American History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1975. [“A collection of primary sources, many not previously printed, intended “to introduce students to some of the raw materials basic to an understanding of both seventeenth-century Virginia and the problem of creating a society in a new world.” There is no index to help identify specific references to Jamestown, but Jamestown was at the center of public life in the colony throughout the centuryChapter headings include The Beginnings, The Evolution of Self-government, The Structure of Society, Bound Labor, Tobacco and Trade, Indians and Whites, Upheaval and Rebellion, and Life in Seventeenth-Century Virginia.” 324 pp.; illus., maps. Jamestown Bibliography]

Billings, Warren M., John E. Selby, and Thad Tate. Colonial Virginia: A History. AHistory of the American Colonial Colonies. White Plains, New York: KTO Press, 1986. {420 pp., illustrations, bibliography, index.]

Birkbeck, Morris. Notes on a Journey to America. Philadelphia, 1817. London: Severn & Company, 1818.

Bishop, J. Leander. A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860. Philadelphia, 1868.

Black, Robert C. III. The Railroads of the Confederacy. With a New Forword by Gary W. Gallagher. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. Originally published Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1952. [CW.] [Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Blackett, R.J.M., ed. Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989. [AA; CW.]

Blackford, William Willis. War Years with Jeb Stuart. New York, 1945.

Blake, Nelson Morehouse. William Mahone of Virginia. Richmond, 1935.

Blanton, Wyndham B. Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century. Richmond: Garrett and Massie, 1931. [449 pp.]

Blanton, Wyndham B. Medicine in Virginia in the Ninereenth Century. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1933. Blanton, Wyndham B. Medicine in Vinginia in the Seventeenth Century. Richmond: William Byrd Press, 1930. [337 pp., illustrations, bibliography.]

Bluford, Robert, Jr. Living on the Borders of Eternity: The Story of Samuel Davies and the Struggle for Religious Toleration in Colonial Virginia. Mechanicsville, Virginia: Historic Polegreen Press, 2004. [Davies, the leading proselytizer for Presbyterian religion in colonial Virginia, preached in many parts of the colony, including several times in the Petersburg area. He published tracts and poems in the Virginia Gazette. He left Virginia to take the position of president of the College of New Jersey, in Princeton, where he died. Three of his sons, Samuel, William, and John Rodgers, lived in Petersburg. No table of contents, no notes, no bibliography, no index. RDW]

Blumin, Stuart M. The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760–1900. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Bodenhorn, Howard. “Private Banking in Antebellum Virginia: Thomas Branch & Sons of Petersburg.” Business History Review 71 (1997): 513-542.

Bond, Natalie Jenkins, and Osmun Latrobe Coward, eds. The South Carolinians: Colonel Asbury Coward’s Memoirs. New York: Vantage Press, 1968. [CW.]

Booth, Edwin G. In War Time. Philadelphia, 1885.

Bouldin, Powhatan. Home Reminiscences of John Randolph of Roanoke. Danville: Published by the Author, and Printed by Clemmitt & Jones, Richmond, 1878. New Edition, Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1878. New Edition, New York: The Century Company, 1896. Original edition available for reading online or for downloading, at

Bowley, Freeman S. The Petersburg Mine. n.p., 1889. ?

Boykin, Edward M. The Falling Flag. New York: E.J. Hale and Son, 1874.

Brackenridge, Hugh Henry. Modern Chivalry: Containing the Adventures of a Captain, and Teague O’Regan, His Servant. Philadelphia: J. Conrad & Co.; Baltimore: M. and J. Conrad & Co.;Washington City: Rapin, Conrad & Co.; Petersburg: Somervell & Conrad; and Norfolk: Bonsal, Conrad & Co. S.H. M’Fetrich, printer, 1804–1807. 4 vol. in 2. Available on microform at PUL. [Brackenridge pursued a very successful legal and civic career, serving on the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and founding both the University of Petersburgh and the Pittsburgh Gazette, now the Post-Gazette. But it is his literary career that was most notable. “At age 19 he entered the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University, where he joined Philip Morin Freneau, James Madison, and others in forming the American Whig Society to counter the conservative Cliosophic, or Tory, Society. (Today these are conjoined as the American Whig-Cliosophic Society.) Freneau and Brackenridge collaborated on a satire on American manners that may be the first work of prose fiction written in America, ‘Father Bombo’s Pilgrimage to Mecca.’ They also wrote ‘The Rising Glory of America,’ a prophetic poem of a united nation that would rule the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Brackenridge recited it at the commencement exercises of 1771.” Wikipedia. Brackenridge published the first two parts of his rambling satirical novel, Modern Chivalry, in 1792, the third in 1793, and the fourth in 1797. In 1805 he published a revision, and then in 1815 another edition, with additions. The work is widely considered the first important fictional work about the American frontier, and called “to the West what Don Quixote was to Europe.” “Henry Adams called it ‘a more thoroughly American book than any written before 1833.’” Wikipedia. How the Conrad editions fit into the development of the novel I am presently unaware, but the Conrad dates, 1804–1807, clearly bracket the date of the revised edition. John Conrad, the force behind his chain of bookstores and of this and other publishing ventures, lived in Philadelphia, but Modern Chivalry was published in the name of all of his stores, including Somervell & Conrad, apparently operated by John Somervell, in Petersburg. Thus, very early, Petersburg played a role in an important event in American literary history. RDW]

Bradley, Stephen E., Jr., abstracter. The 1850 Federal Census: Dinwiddie County, Virginia and the City of Petersburg (Including All Schedules). Keysville, Virginia: Stephen E. Bradley, Jr., 1991.

Bragg, George F. The Story of Old Saint Stephen’s, Petersburg, Virginia, The Origin of Bishop Payne Divinity School. Baltimore: Church Advocate Print, 1906.

Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989. [The opening chapter, entiltled :Foreruuner: Vernon Johns,” pp. 1-26, obviously deals with Johns, who lived in Petersburg during most of these years. RDW]

Breen, T.H., ed. Shaping Southern Society: The Colonial Experience. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. [“Contents include “The Labor Problems at Jamestown, 1607-18,” by E. S. Morgan; “The Image of the Indian in the Southern Colonial Mind,” by G. B. Nash; “A Changing Labor Force and Race Relations in Virginia, 1660-1710,” by T. H. Breen; and “Politics and Social Structure in Virginia,” by B. Bailyn. 265 pp. Jamestown Bibliography]

Brewer, James H. The Confederate Negro: Virginia’s Craftsmen and Military Laboreres, 1861–1865. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1969. Rare. VSU.

Briceland, Alan Brice. Westward from Virginia: The Exploration of the Virginia-Carolina Frontier, 1650–1710. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987. [Fort Henry stars in this drama. RDW]

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown, 1544–1699. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. [199 pp., illustrations, bibliography, index.]

Bridenbaugh, Carl. The Colonial Craftsman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950.

Brigham, Clarence S. History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690–1829. Worcester, Massachusetts, 1947.

Brissot de Warville, Jean Pierre. New Travels in the United States of America. London, 1792.

Brown, Alexander. English Politics in Early Virginia History. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1901.

Brown Philip F. Reminiscences of the War of 1861–1865. n.p., n.d.

Brown, William Moseley. Blandford Lodge No. 3, A.F. and A.M.: A Bicentennial History. Petersburg, 1957.

Brownell, Blaine A., and David R. Goldfield, eds. The Growth of Urban Civilization in the South. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat, 1977.

Bruce, H.C. The New Man: Twenry-Nine Years a Slave, Twenty-Nine Years a Free Man. York, Pennsylvania: Amstadt & Sons, 1895. [Bruce had worked in a tobacco factory in Brunswick. RDW]

Bruce, Kathleen. Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era. New York: Cnetury, 1930.

Bruce, Philip Alexander. Institutional History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. New York, 1910.

Bruce, William Cabell. John Randolph of Roanoke, 1773–1833: A Biography Based Largely on New Material. Two Volumes. New York: G.P. Putnam, 1922. Seconf rev. ed., 1939. Reprinted, New York: Octagon Books, , 1970. Bryant, William Cullen. Letters of a Traveller. New York, 1851.

Buckingham, J.S. The Slave States of America. London, 1842.

Burk, John Daly. “An Historical Essay on the Character and Antiquity of Irish Songs.” Richmond Enquirer (27 May 1808). 5 cols. [This was definitely published, but may not be extant. Prefaced by the following: “Proposals for publishing by subsription the Ancient and Modern Music of Ireland, with original songs, suited to the character, and expressive of its beautiful melodies, which will be issued by John McCreery and Skelton Jones. In the meantme the following essay from the pen of the late John D. Burk, on the Irish nusic, is given to the public, in order that the lovers of the fine arts, and particularly amateursin the simple and exquisite expression of every tune, which will be admitted into the collection, may judge of the claims of Ireland to the merit of having composed those melodies that breathe the very soul of tenderness itself, or the genuine spirit of hilarity and humor, etc.” From Charles Campbell, Some Materials to Serve for a Brief Biography of John Daly Burk, pp. 30-31. RDW]

Burk, John Daly. “An Oration, Delivered at the New Brick Church, in Petersburg, on Friday the 4th pf March, 1808, by John D. Burk.” Richmond Enquirer (March 1808). 4 cols.

Burk, John Daly. Bethlem Gabor, Lord of Transylvania, or the Man-Hating Palatine, an historical drama, in three acts. Petersburg: Somervell and Conrad, 1807. Printed by J. Dickson. [Somervell & Conrad were bookseller, whose shop was near the southwest corner of Sycamore and Old. The drama was performed both professionally and by the Petersburg Thespians, with Burk himself in the lead role. RDW]

Burk, John Daly. The History of Virginia, from Its First Settlement to the Present Day. 4 vols. Vol. I: Petersburg: Somervell & Conrad, 1804. Vols. II & III: Petersburg: Somervell & Conrad, 1805. Printed by Dickson & Pescud. Vol. IV, completed by Skelton Jones and Louis Hue Girardin, printed by M.W. Dunnavant, 1816. Second ed. of Vol. I, printed by Dickson & Pescud, Bollingbrook Street, 1822.
[Burk, a fiery young Irish proponent of liberty, fled Irish authorities for Boston in 1796. Running afowl of John Adams, he moved to New York, where remarks he published in his newspaper led to his arrest under the Alien & Sedition Acts. By arrangement by Aaron Burr, Burk escaped by promising to leave the country, but he went to Virginia instead, where he hid until 1800, then moved to Petersburg. He was soon undertaking his History of Virginia, the first full-scale effort to produce such a thing, to be completed in time for Virginia’s Bicentennial, 1807. Working with access to much material since lost or destroyed, he published the first volume in 1804, the second and third in 1805, bringing the story up to the eve of the Revolution. Before he completed the wotk, however, he was killed in a duel in a ravine just off of Fleet’s Hill—where Virginia State University now stands—in 1808. The fourth volume, completed by Skelton Jones and Louis Hue Girardin, appeared in 1816. Burk transforms the history of Virginia into the story of the evolution of liberty. He treats Bacon’s Rebellion as a popular uprising, and Bacon as hero of liberty, the first time Bacon had been thought of in this way. RDW]

Burne, Alfred H. Lee, Grant, and Sherman. New York, 1939.

Butler, Benjamin F. Butler’s Book. Autobiography and Personal Remiscences. A Review of His Legal, Political, and Military Career. Boston: A.M. Thayer & Co., Book Publishers, 1892. [Butler’s Army of the James arrived at Bermuda Hundred on 5 May 1864, and remained until the fall of Petersburg, and beyond as occupying troops. Butler himself, very inventive in some ways, was incompetent as a field commander. However, early in the war, at Hampton, he invented the legal construct of fugitive slaves as “contraband,” and championed African-American soldiers until the end. A substantial proportion of his command was African-American. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, footnotes, index. RDW]

Byrd, William. Journey to the Land of Eden; and Other Papers by WIlliam Byrd. New York: Macy-Masius,

1928. An American Bookshelf. PUL. New York: Vanguard, 1928. [367 pp.]

Byrd, William. The Westover Manuscripts: Containing the History of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina; a Journey to the Land of Eden, A.D. 1733; and A Progress to the Mines. Written from 1728 to 1736, and Now First Published, by William Byrd. Petersburg: Edmund and Julian C. Ruffin, 1841. Rare. Available as a rare book and online at PUL. [143 pp.]

Cabot, John Stevens. South and North. New York, 1860.

Calkins, Chris. Auto Tour of Civil War Petersburg 1861–1865. Petersburg: The Petersburg Museums, 2003.

Calkins, Chris. From Petersburg to Appomattox. Farmville. Virginia: The Farmville Herald, 1990.

Calkins, Chris. Lee’s Retreat: A History and Field Guide. A mile-by-mile description of sites and events associated with the final days of Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Petersburg to Appomattox, April 1865. Maps by Steve Stanley. Richmond: Page One History Publications, 2000. [No table of contents, illustrations, maps, no notes, no bibiography, index to sites. RDW]

Calkins, Chris. The Battles of Appomattox Station and Appomattox Court House: April 8–9, 1865. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1987.

Calkins, Chris. The Final Bivouac: The Surrender Parade at Appomattox and the Disbanding of the Armies, April 10–May 20, 1865. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1986.

Calkins, Chris. Thirty-Six Hours Before Appomattox: The Battles of Saylers Creek, High Bridge, Farmville and Cumberland County. Farmville, Virginia: The Farmville Herald, 1980.

Campbell & Company, eds. Gazetteer of the City of Petersburg 1877–78. Richmond: George W. Gary, printer, 1877. Campbell, Charles. Genealogy of the Spotswood Family in Scotland and Virginia. Albany: Joel Munsell, 1868.

Campbell, Charles. Introduction to the History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia. In One Volume, Richmond: B.B. Minor, Publisher, 1847. Available online on Google Books. [208 pp., table of contents, index.]

Campbell, Charles. Memoirs of a Monticello Slave: As Dictated to Charles Campbell in the 1840’s by Isaac, one of Jefferson’s Slaves. Ed. Rayford W. Logan. 1951. Reprint in Jefferson at Monticello, ed. James A. Bear, Jr. Chalottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1967.
[Isaac Jefferson and Campbell lived in Petersburg. Mainly a slave’s impressions of Jefferson. RDW]

Campbell, Charles, ed. Some Materials to Serve for a Brief Memoir of John Daly Burk, Author of A History of Virginia, with a Sketch of the Life and Character of His Only Child, John Junius Burk. Albany: Joel Munsell, 1868.

Campbell, Charles, ed. The Bland Papers: Being a Selection from the Manuscripts of Colonel Theodorick Bland, Jr., Of Prince George County Virginia. To Which Are Prefixed An Introduction and A Memoir of Colonial Bland. In Two Volumes. Vol. I: Petersburg: Edmund & Julian C. Ruffin, 1840. Vol. II: Petersburg: E. & J.C. Ruffin, 1843. Available Online on Google Books, and at PUL.

Campbell, Sir George. Black and White. New York, 1879.

Campbell, John Wilson. A History of Virginia from Its Discovery Till the Year 1781. With biographical sketches of all the most distinguished characters that occur in the colonial, evolutionary, or subsequent period of our history. Petersburg: J.W. Campbell, 1813. Available Online on Google Books. [Campbell operated a bookstore in Petersburg. His son was the educator and historian Charles Campbell. In the 1820s and 1830s he was located on the south side of the ruined bakery wall in the Java Mio Courtyard. Here, from 1836 until 1838 his partner was the agricultural editor and fire-eating Secessionist Edmund Ruffin. And here, in 1832, Campbell published Edmund Ruffin’s epochal An Essay on Calcareous Manures. RDW]

Campbell, John Wilson. The Columbian Reader; or, A selection of amusing and instructive lessons, for schools and academies. Philadelphia: J.W. Campbell, 1814.

Cannan, John. The Crater: Burnside’s Assault on the Confederate Trenches, July 30, 1864. Battleground America Guides. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press/Perseus Books Group, 2002. [Table of contents, illustrations, maps, no footnotes, suggested reading, index. RDW]

Cappon, Lester J. Virginia Newspapers, 1821–1935: A Bibiography with Historical Introduction and Notes. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1936.

Carey, John, ed. Eyewitness to History. New York: Avon Books, 1990. By arrangement with the Harvard University Press: Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988. Originally published in Great Britain as The Faber Book of Reportage. [Just two brief articles dealing with Virginia, but one of them, entitled “American Slavery: Sale of Slaves, Virginia, 1846” (pp. 316-318), by Dr. Elwood Harvey, describing a slave sale near Petersburg, is fascinating. Carey says he found it in Harriet Beecher Stowe, A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1853. RDW]

Carr, Lois Green, Philip D. Morgan, and Jean B. Russo, eds. Colonial Chesapeake Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1988.

Carroll, Gordon, ed. The Desolate South, 1865–1866. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1956. [CW; Postbellum.]

Case, Ervin T. Battle of the Mine. Providence, 1879.

Cate, Wirt A., ed. Two Soldiers. Chapel Hill, 1938.

Catton, Bruce. A Stiilness at Appomattox. New York, 1953.

Cavanaugh, Michael A., and William Marvel. The Battle of the Crater, “That Horrid Pit”: June 25–August 6, 1864. Virginia Civil War Battles and Leaders Series. The Petersburg Campaign. Lynchburg: H.E. Howard, 1989. PUL.

Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence. Petersburg and Appomattox. n.p. 1903. ?

Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence. The Passing of the Armies. Dayton, Ohio: Morningside Press, 1991.

Chamberlayne, Churchill G., ed. Ham Chamberlayne, Virginian: Letters and Papers of an Artillery Officer in the War for SOuthern Independence. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1932. Chamberlayne, Churchill G., Transcriber. The Vestry Book and Register of Bristol Parish, 1720-1789. Richmond, 1898.

Chase, J.J. The Charge at Day-Break: Scenes and Incidents at the Battle of the Mine Explosion. Lewsiton, 1875.

Chastellux, Francois Jean de Beauvoir, Marquis de. Travels in North America in the Years 1780–81–82 by the Marquis de Chastellux. New York: White, Gallaher, and White, 1827. In translation. First published as Voyages de M. le Marquis de Chastellux dans l’Amerique septentrionale, dans les annees 1780, 1781, et 1782. 1786. Reissued: Paris: Tallandier, 1980.

Cheek, William F. “A Negro Runs for Congress: John Mercer Langston and the Virginia Campaign of 1888.” The Journal of Negro History, 52 (Jan. 1967): 14-34.

Cheek, William F., and Aimee Lee Cheek. John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom 1829–1865. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Claiborne, John Herbert. “Last Days of Lee and His Paladins.” In War Talks of Confederate Veterans, ed. George S. Bernard. Petersburg: Fenn and Owen, 1892. [CW.]

Claiborne John Herbert. Seventy-Five Years in Old Virginia. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1904.

Clark, James H. The Iron-Hearted Regiment: Being an Account of the Battles, Marches and Gallant Deeds Performed by the 115th Regiment N.Y. Volunteers. Albany, New York, 1865,

Clarke, Asia Booth. The Elder and the Younger Booth. Boston, 1882.

Clarke, Ethel Courtney, compiler. Chesterfield County, Virginia, Records . . . . Richmond, 1937.

Clarke, Victor S. A History of Manufactures in the United States. Washington, 1916.

Clawson, Mary Ann. Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Cleaveland, Edmund J. “The Siege of Petersburg.” Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society (1948).

Clegg, Claude Andrew. The Price of Liberty: African Americans and the Making of Liberia. Chapel Hill: University of North carolina Press, 2004.

Click, Patricia. The Spirit of the Times: Amusements in Nineteenth-Century Baltimore, Norfolk, and Richmond. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989.

Clinton, Sir Henry. The Narrative of Sir Henry Clinton. London, 1783.

Cockrell, Monroe F., ed. Gunner with Stonewall: Remiscences of William Thomas Poague. Jackson, Tennessee: McCowat-Mercer Press, 1957. [CW.]

Coffield, E.M., compiler. Petersburg Business Directory and Merchant’s and Manufacturer’s Advertiser. Petersburg: E.P. Nash & Company, 1856. Rare. VHS.

Coke, Thomas. Extracts of the Journals of the Rev. Dr. Coke’s Five Visits to America. London, 1793. Coleman, Mary Haldane. St. George Tucker: Citizen of No Mean City. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1938. [Memoir.]

Collier, Robert R. Remarks on the Subject of Ownership of Slaves, Delibered by R.R. Collier of Petersburg, in the Senate of Virginia, October 12, 1863. Richmond: J.E. Goode (printer), 1863. Available on Microform at PUL.

Collier, Robert R. The Right Way for Restoring the Late Rebel States to Their Political Relationship in the Federal Union, or, An Argument Intended to Induce the People and Public Men in Making Elections and Filling Offices, State and Federal, to Be Governed by the Constitution of the United States. 2nd ed. Petersburg: A.F. Crutchfield, 1865. Available online at PUL.

Collier-Thomas, Bettye, and V.P. Franklin, eds. Sisters in Struggle: African-American Women in the Civil Rights–Black Power Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Comstock, Helen. “Furniture of Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Kentucky.” In Southern Furniture New York: The Magazine Antiques, 1952.

Cooke, Giles B. “Diary.” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine (1937).

Cooke, John Esten. A Life of Robert E. Lee. New York, 1875.

Copeland, Catherine. Bravest Surrender: A Petersburg Patchwork. Richmond: The Press of Whittet & Shepperson, 1961.

Copp, Eldridge J. Reminiscences of the War of the Rebellion 1851–1865. Nashua, New Hampshire, 1911.

Corbin, Richard W. Letters of a Confederate Officer to His Family in Europe During the Last Year of the War of Secession. New York, 1913. Corson, W.C. Two Months in the Confederate States. London: Richard Bentley, 1863. [CW.]

Couture, Richard T. Charlie’s Letters: The Civil War Correspondence of Charles E. Denoon. n.p., 1989. [CW.]

Craven, Avery O. Edmund Ruffin, Southerner: A Study in Secession. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1932. Crawford, Alan Pell. Unwise Passions: A True Story of a Remarkable Woman and the First Great Scandal of 18th Century America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Crofts, Daniel W., ed. Cobb’s Ordeal: The Diaries of a Virginia Farmer, 1842–1872. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997. [CW.]

Crofts, Daniel W. “Late Antebellum Virginia Reconsidered.” Virginia Magazine of Hstory and Biography 107 (1999): EBSCOhost.

Crofts, Daniel W. Old Southampton: Politics and Society in a Virginia County, 1834–1869.

Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992.

Crosby, Emilye. A Little Taste of Freedom: The Black Freedom Struggle In Clairborne County, Mississippi. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture. [See especially the “Epilogue: Looking at the Devil in the Eye: Who Gets to Tell the Story,” pp. 269-282. Table of contents, illustrations, end notes, bibliography, index. RDW]]

Crowder, T.C. A Brief Historical Sketch of the Origini and Growth of the West End Baptist Church. Petersburg: The Young Men’s Missionary Society, 1893. Crowe, Eyre. With Thackeray in America. London, 1893. Culver, J.B. “The Petersburg Mine.” National Tribune (4 September 1919). Current, Richard N., ed. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy. 4 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. [CW.]

Curry, Leonard P. The Free Black in Urban America 1800–1850. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Cushman, Frederick E. History of the 58th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers from the 15th of September, 1863 to the Close of the Rebellions. Washington, D.C., 1865.

Dabney, Virginius. Pistols and Pointed Pens: The Dueling Editors of Virginia. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquian Books of Chapel Hill, 1987. Published in association with Taylor Publishing Company.

Dabney, Virginius. Richmond: The Story of a City. Garden City, New YorK: Doubleday, 1976. Rev. Exp. Su. Ed.: Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

Dabney, Virginius. Virginia: The New Dominion. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1972. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1889.

Dailey, Jane. Before Jim Crow: The Politics of Race in Postemancipation Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Dailey, Jane. “Deference and Violence in the Postbellum Urban South: Manners and Massacres in Danville, Virginia.” The Journal of Southern History, 63 (August 1997): 553-590.

Dance, Martha Short. Peabody High School—A History of the First Negro Public High School in Virginia. New York: Carlton Press, Inc., nd. A Hearthstone Book. Rare. VSU

Davidson, Nora. “Confederate Hospitals at Petersburg, Va.” Confederate Veteran (September 1921). Davidson, Nora Fontaine M. Cullings from the Confederacy. A Collection of Southern Poems, Original and Others, Popular during the War between the States, and Incidents and Facts Worth Recalling. 1862–1866. Including the Doggerel of the Camp, as Weell as Tender Tribute to the Dead. “From gave to ga, from reverend to severe.” Washington, D.C.: Rufus H. Darby Printing Co., 1903.

Davis, Arthur Kyle. “Three Centuries of an Early Virginia Town.” Part 1. The Magazine of History, with Notes and Queries. 18 (April 1914): 163-180. . Davis, Arthur Kyle. “Three Centuries of an Early Virginia Town.” Part 2. The Magazine of History, with Notes and Queries. 18 (May-June 1914): 202-215. Available to read online at Google Books. Davis, Arthur Kyle. Three Centuries of an Early Virginia Town. Richmond: W.C. Hill Printing Company. 1923.

Davis, Burke. To Appomattox: Nine April Days. New York: Rinehart and Company, 1959. Davis, Burke. The Long Surrender. New York: Random House, 1985.

Davis, Jefferson. The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. New York, 1881.

Davis, John. The First Settlers of Virginia. A Historical Novel. Exhibitine a view of the rise and progress of the colony at Jamestown, a picture of Indian manners, the countenance of the country, and its natural productions. New York, I. Riley and Co., 1805. Printed by Southwick & Hardcastle, no. 2, Wall-Street. [Davis was keeping school in Petersburg ca. 1808. Young Thomas P. Atkinson, later Bishop of North Carolina, and Junius Burk, John Daly Burk’s son, were headed to Davis’s school, where they were students, when they discovered the spot, on Fleet’s Hill, where Junius’s father had just been killed in a duel. This book, historical fiction, was ridiculed by the Edinburgh Review. Charles Campbell says that Davis was “the author of a rhapsodic piece, featuring Pocahontas.” He also wrote verse. RDW]

Davis, Matthew L. Memoirs of Aaron Burr. New York, 1837.

Davis, William. Death In the Trenches: Grant at Petersburg. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1986.

Dawidoff, Robert. The Education of John Randolph. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1979. Day, Samuel Phillips.

Down South. London, 1862. Davis, Arthur Kyle. Three Centuries of an Old Virginia Town: The Story of Petersburg, Its History and Memorials. Richmond, 1923. Richmond, 1942.

Davis, Arthur Kyle, ed. Virginia Communitird in Wat Time. 2nd vol. Richmond: Virginia War History Commission, 1927.

[Davis edited five other volumes for the War History Commission, providing comprehensive information concerning the war effort throughout the state; some of the others should be consulted for possible sketches of Petersburg soldiers. In this volume, an outline of home-front activities is given. RDW]

Davis, Martha Ann. Poems of Laura; An Original American Work. Petersburg: Whitworth & Yancey, Printers, 1818. Available online and on microform at PUL. [106 pp.; Davis dates: 1790–1874. RDW]

Davis, Robert P. Where a Man Can Go: Major General William Phillips, British Royal Artillery, 1731-1781. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999. Foreword by Peter Somerville-Large. [Phillips commanded the British troops at the 1781 Battle of Petersburg (April 25, 17810, and died and was buried in Petersburg on May 13, 1781. Davis is a retired U.S. Army First Sergeant who lives in Petersburg. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, notes, appendices, bibliography, index. RDW]

Dayton, Ruth Woods, ed. The Diary of a Confederate Soldier: James E. Hall. m.p., 1961. [CW.]

Delano, Charles Anson. The Man-Child Born of the Sun, and an Exposition of the Prophecies of Daniel and the Book of Revelation. Petersburg: Author, 1858. [Rambling autobiography. Delano was a house-painter with emotional problems, thoough a member of the Petersburg Benevolent Mechanic Association. In the 1840s, he was committed to the lunatic asylum in Williamsburg, but had returned to work in Petersburg by 1850. During the Civil War, he painted Confederate and regimental flaaags to order. His wife advertised as a leach-nurse in the 1869 and 1860 Petersburg directories. RDW}

Dennis, Michael. Luther P. Jackson and a Life for Civil Rights. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.

De Peyster, J. watts. La Royale . . . The Grand Hunt of the Army of the Potomac on the 3rd–7th (a.n.) April . . . Major-General Andrew Atkinson Humphreys and a Combined Second-Third Corps Leading the Pursuit . . . by Anchor [pseud.] New York: J.R. Huth?, Printer, 1872–74. [6 parts in 1 vol. fold-out maps. Vol. 1. Pts. 1-6: Petersburg to High Bridge; Vol. 2. Pt. 1: Cumberland Church, or, The Heights of Farmville; Vol. 3, pt. 8: The Last Twenty-Four Hours of the Army of Northern Virginia.]

de Pineton, Adolphe, Marquis de Chambrun. Impressions of Lincoln and the Civil War: A Foreigners Account. New york: Random House, 1952. [CW.] [Chambrun accompanied Mrs. Lincoln to City Point after the fall of Petersburg; he came in to Petersburg on April 4, in a party with the Lincolns, Mrs. Keckley, Charles Sumner, Porter, adn others. Lincoln led a tour for them, then they all went to Centre Hill. RDW]

Devine, T.M. The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and Their Trading Activities c.

1740–90. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1975.

Deyle, Steven. Carry Me Back: The Domstic Slave Trade in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

DiGiuseppe, Thomas E., compiler. “Confederate 1st Company Independent Signal Corps.” Reference document (ts) provided to the author. [CW.] [Apparently a document provided privately to Will Greene. This should be of great interest. RDW]

Dillon, Merton L. Slavery Attacked: Southern Slaves and Their Allies, 1619–1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990. Douglas, Henry Kyd. I Rode with Stonewall. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1940. [CW.]

Dozier, Howard Douglas. A History of the Atlantic Coastline Railroad. New York, 1920.

Dowdey, Clifford, and Louis H. Manarin, eds. The Wartime papers of R.E. Lee. 2 vols. 1961. Reprint, Pennington, N.J., 1996. [CW.]

Downey, Tom. “Riparian Rights and Manufacturing in Antebellum South Carolina: William Gregg and the Origins of the Industrial Mind.” William & Mary Quarterly 50 (3rd ser. October 1993): 743-767.

Dozier, Graham T., compiler. Virginia’s Civil War: A Guide to the Manusripts at the Virginia Historical Society. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1998. [CW.]

Draper, John William. History of the American Civil War. New York, 1867–1870.

Drewry, William Sidney. The Southampton Insurrection. Washington, 1900.

Drewry, Patrick Henry. The Story of a Church: A History of Washington Street Church. Petersburg, 1923.

Dunlap, William. History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States. New York, 1834.

Eaton, Clement. A History of the Southern Confederacy. New York, 1954.

Earle, Carlville, and Ronald Hoffman. “Staple Crops and Urban Development in the Eighteenth-Century South.” Perspectives in American History 10 (1976).

Edwards, Lucious. “Petersburg and Free Black Immigrants: 1748–1860,” in The Virginia Geographer: The Journal of the Virginia Geographical Society. Special Issue: Petersburg. Vol, XVI, Spring-Summer 1984. Published in conjunction with the Department of Public Affairs and the Division of Continuing Education, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill: Unversity of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Eisenhower, John S.D. Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott. New York: The Free Press, 1997. [Scott grew up in Dinwiddie, studied law on Bollingbrook Street, and spent a crucial period at the outset of his militery career living with Benjamin Watkins Leigh on High Street. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Elliott, Charles Winslow. Winfield Scott, The Soldier and the Man. New York, 1937.

Elmore, Fletcher L., Jr., compiler. Diary of J.E. Whitehorne 1st Sgt. Co. F Twelfth Va. Infantry A.P. Hill’s Third Corps A. N. Va. Louisville: n.p., 1995.

Ely, James W., Jr. The Crisis of Conservative Virginia: The Byrd Organization and the Politics of Massive Resistance. Twentieth-Century America Series. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976. [220 pp.]

Ely, Melvin Patrick, Israel on the Appomattox: A Southern Experiment in Black Freedom from the 1790s Through the Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. [Deals with the slaves of Richard Randolph of Bizarre, who were freed by his will and settled on the land bequeathed to them, Israel Hill on the Appomattox, near Farmville. Richard Randolph and his brother John Randolph of Roanoke had grown up at Matoax (the Randolph Farm), for many years with their stepfather, St. George Tucker, who had been a student of George Wythe and was an abolitionist. 640 pages. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, bibliographical endnotes, index. RDW]

Emmerson, John C. The Steam-Boat Comes to Norfolk Harbor. Portsmouth, 1949.

Epps, Garrett. The Shad Treatment: A Novel. New York: Putnam, 1977. New ed. The Virginia Bookshelf. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997. [Fictional, but about a real Virginia gubernatorial campaign, and one of the best books of the 20th century about politics in Virginia. RDW]

Etheredge, William H. “Another Story of the Crater Battle.” Southern Historical Society Papers 37.

Evans, Clement A., ed. Confederate Military History. Atlanta, 1899.

Ewan, Joseph and Nesta. John Banister and His Natural History of Virginia 1678–1692. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970. [The only full study of the work of the Rev. John Banister, the first professsional naturalist in America, who came to the Petersburg region in 1678 as a protege of William Byrd I, and whose work was cut short by an apparently accidental shooting in 1692. Banister played an internationally important role in the formative years of the science of botany, working on a Natural History of Virginia. His first years in Virginia were spent with the Byrds at the Falls of the James. But he soon moved to the Appomattox, where he patentled land on Hatcher’s Run in Dinwiddie County, and married the widow of Abraham Wood Jones,, who had inherited the most important Fort Henry lands of Abraham Wood. Because Jones had died intestate, his widow’s dower was the property known later as Battersea. Table of contents, chronology, illustrations (Banister’s botanical drawings), footnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Egerton, Douglas. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Fairfax, Thomas. Journey from Virginia to Salem, Mass. London, 1936.

Faust, Patricia, ed. Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.Featherston, John C. “Graphic Account of the Battle of the Crater.” Southern Historical Society Papers 36.

Federal Writers Program. Dinwiddie Country, “The Countrey of the Apamatica,” Richmond: Whittet and Shepperson, 1942.

Feltman, Lieut. William. The Journal of . . . 1781-82. Philadelphia, 1853.

Ferguson, Robert. America during and after the War. London, 1866. Ferslew, W. Eugene, compiler. First Annual Directory of the City of Petersburg to Which Is Added a Business Directory. Petersburg: George E. Ford, 1859.

Ferslew, W. Eugene, compiler. The Second Annual Directory for the City of Petersburg, Virginia, to Which Is Appended a Business Directory for 1860. Petersburg: George E. Ford, 1860. Ferguson, William. America by River and Rail. London, 1856.

Fink, Leon. Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor and American Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or the Failure of Free Society. Richmond: A. Morris, 1854.

Fitzpatrick, John C., ed. The Diaries of George Washington, 1748–1799. New York, 1925.

Flanner, Henry C. “Flanner’s North Carolina Battery at the Battle of the Crater.” Southern Historical Society Papers 5.

Fleischner, Jennifer. Mrs.Lincoln and Mrs. Keckly: The Remarkable Story of the Friendship Between a First Lady and a Former Slave. New York: Broadway Books, 2003. [Elizabeth Keckly grew up as a slave in Dinwiddie and lived as an adult slave in both Dinwiddie and Petersburg. As Mrs. Lincoln’s dress designer and seamstress during Lincoln’s entire period as president and beyond, Keckly became Mrs. Lincoln’s best friend and confidant. When the President visited Petersburg on April 7, 1865, both Mrs. Lincoln and Mrs. Keckly accompanied him. It was a very emotional moment for Mrs. Keckly, visiting the street where she had lived as a slave twenty years before, and where she had been sold privately. No table of contents, illustrations, maps, bibliogtaphical endnotes, no separate bibliography, index. RDW]

Fleischner, Jennifer. “Objects of Mourning in Elizabeth Keckley’s Behind the Scenes.” In Mastering Slavery; Memory, Family, and Identity in Women’’s Slave Narratives. New York: New York University Press, 1996. Pp.93-132.

Flournoy, H.W., ed. Calendar of Virginia State Papers and Other Manuscripts. 11 vols. Richmond, 1893.

Fogel, Robert William, and Stanley L. Engerman. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery. 1974. Reprint, New York: W.W. Norton, 1989.

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. 1870, Reprint, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Fonseca, James W., ed. The Virginia Geographer: The Journal of the Virginia Geographical Society. Special Issue: Petersburg. Vol. XVI, Spring-Summer 1984. in conjunction with the Department of Public Affairs and the Division of Continuing Education, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Foote, William Henry. Sketches of Virginia. Philadelphia, 1850-55.

Ford, Lacy K., Jr. “Making the ‘White Man’s’ Country White: Race, Slavery, and State-Building in the Jacksonian South.” Journal of the Early Republic 19 (Winter 1999): 713-737.

Ford, W.C.. ed. A Cycle of Adams Letters, 1861–1865. Boston, 1920.

Fordham, Elias Pym. Personal Narrative of Travels. Cleveland, 1926.

Foster, Frances Smith. “Autobiography after Emancipation: The Example of Elizabeth Keckley.” In Multicultural Autobiography: American Lives. Ed. James Robert Payne. Knoxville” University of Tennessee Press, 1992. Pp. 32-63.

Foster, Frances Smoth. “Romance and Scandal in a Postbellum Slave Narrative.” In Written by Herself: Literary Production by African-American Women, 1746–1892. [Elizabeth Keckley.]

Fothergill, Augusta B. Peter Jones and Richard Jones Genealogies. Richmond, 1924.

Fowke, Gerard. “Archeologic Investigations i James and Potomac Valleys.” Washington: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 23 (1894).

Franklin, John Hope. The Free Negro in North Carolina, 1790–1860. New York: W.W. Norton, 1971.

Fransanito, William A. Grant and Lee: The Virginia Campaigns, 1864–1865. New York: Chales Scribner’s Sons, 1983.

Freehling, Alison Goodyear. Drift Toward Dissolution: The Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831–1831. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.

Freehling, William W. The South vs. The South: How Anti-Confederate Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Freeman, Douglas Southall, ed. Lee’s Dispatches. New York, 1915.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee’s Lieutenants. Three volumes. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1942–1944.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. R.E. Lee, A Biography. New York, 1934–1935.

Freemantle, Arthur James. Three Months in the Confederate States. New York, 1864.

French, Samuel G. Two Wars: An Autobiography of Samuael G. French. Nashville: Confederate Veteran, 1901. [CW.]

Gallagher, Gary W., ed. Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of Edward Porter Alexander. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. [CW.]

Gallagher, Gary W., ed. Lee the Soldier. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996. [A ccollection of essays, from modern historians and Lee’s contemporaries and colleagues, concerning his military career. The last chapter: “The R.E. Lee 200: An Annotated Bibliography of Essential Books on Lee’s Military Career.” RDW]

Gallagher, Gary W. The Confederate War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Gara, Larry, Brenda E. Stevenson, C. Peter Ripley, and Marie Tyler-McGraw, eds. Underground Railroad. National Park Service Handbook 156. Washington, D.C.: Division of Publications, National Park Service, 1998. [Petersburg is rich in the history of the Underground Railroad, and this little book is basic for research in that field. Includes “An Epic in United States History: Myth and Reality,” byLarry Gara, pp. 4-12; “From Bondage to FreedomSlavery in America,” by Brenda E, Stevenson, pp. 16-43; “The Underground Railroad,” by C. Peter Ripley, pp. 44-75; “Tracking the Past,” pp. 76-81; and “Further Reading,” by Marie Tyler-McGraw, pp. 82-85. Index. RDW]

Garland, Hugh A. The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke. 13th ed. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1874. [Garland lived in Dinwiddie and Petersburg before he removed to St. Louis, where he was engaged in defending Dred Scott’s master when he died. In the state courts and the first level of Federal courts, he had developed what would prove to be the winning arguments. His wife’s half-sister, Elizabeth Keckley, was there slave in Virginia and in St. Louis, but she bought her freedom by creating dresses for St. Louis women, who paid her for her work. Once free, she went first to Baltimore, and then to Washington in 1860, where, by the end of that year, she was creating dresses for Varina Davis, When Mrs. Lincoln needed a new inaugural gown, she engaged Keckley to create it, and employed her in like activities throughout the Civil War, becoming eventually her best friend and confidant. When the Lincolns visited the newly-fallen Petersburg on April 7, 1865, Keckley was with them. RDW]’’

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll Jordan Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage, 1974.

Genovese, Eugene D. The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South. 1961. Reprint, New York: Vintage, 1967.

Gerrish, Theodore. Army Life: A Private’s Reminiscences of the Civil War. Portland, Maine: Hoyt, Fogg and Donnan, 1882.

Gilje, Paul. Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, Wisconsin: Madison House, 1997.

Ginsberg, Louis. History of the Jews in Petersburg, 1789–1850. Petersburg: n.p., 1954. [118 pp., illustrations.]

Girard, Charles. A Visit to the Confederate States of America in 1863. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: Confederate Publishing, 1962.

Gleeson, Davis T. The Irish in the South, 1815–1877. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Glickstein, Jonathan A. Concepts of Free labor in Antebellum America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Goldfield, David R. “Pursuing the American Urban Dream: Cities in the Old South.” In The Growth of Urban Civilization in the South. Ed. Blaine A. Brownell and David R. Goldfield. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat, 1977.

Goldfield, David R. Urban Growth in the Age of Sectionalism: Virginia, 1847–1861. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Goldin, Claudia Dale. Urban Slavery in the American South, 1820–1860: A Quantitative History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

Goodwin, William Archer Rutherfoord. Historical Sketch of Bruton Church, Williamsburg, Virginia. Petersburg: Franklin Press (Printer), 1903. Rare. PUL. [After a decade at his first church, St. John’s on West Washington Street in Petersburg, and after consecrating that church in 1903, W.A.R. Goodwin moved on the Bruton Parish Church in Williamsburg, where he launched a campaign to restore the church. Since the early nineteenth-century baptismal font at Bruton was not appropriate for a church restores to the eighteenth century, Goodwin gave the Bruton font to St. John’s, where it remains today. Eventually, Goodwin and John D. Rockefeller foundede Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. 183 pp. illustrations. RDW]

Gordon, Armistead Churchill. Memories and Memorials of Willam Gordon McCabe. Richmond: Old Dominion Press, 1925. [CW; Postbellum.]

Gordon, John B. Reminiscences of the Civil War. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1900. 1903? [Gordon, a young Georgian, was one of Lee’s corps commanders at Petersburg, He was in command of the major attack on Fort Stedman on March 25, 1865. RDW]

Goree, Langston James, V., ed. The Thomas Jewett Goree Letters. Vol. 1, Civil War Correspondence. Bryan, Texas: Family History Foundation, 1981. [CW.]

Gould, Joseph. The Story of the Forty-Eighth: A Record of the Campaigns of the Forty-Eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Voluntary Infantry During the Four Eventful Years of Its Service In the War for the Preservation of the Union. Philadelphia, 1908.

Graham, William Joseph, and Mark R. Wenger. “Battersea: A Historical and Architectural Survey.” A Report prepared for Friends of Battresea, Historic Petersburg Foundation. 1988. PPL. [Includes information on the slave quarters at Battersea.]

Grant, Ulysses S. The Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. 2 vols. New York: Charles L. Webster and Company, 1885–1886.

Gray, Lewis Cecil. History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860. Washington, 1933.

Green, Bryan Clark, Calder Loth, and William M.S. Rasmussen, eds. Lost Virginia: Vanished Architecture of the Old Dominion. Charlotttesville, Virginia: Howell Press, 2001. [Nineteen Petersburg buildings included, written by Dulaney Ward. RDW]

Green, Rodney D. “The Industrial Transition in the Land of Chattel Slavery: Richmond, Virginia, 1820–1860.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 8, no. 2 (1984): 238-253.

Greenburg, Kenneth S. Honor and Slavery. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. [A study of the Southern chivalric code.]

Greene, A. Wilson. Breaking the Backbone of Rebellion: The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign. Mason City, Iowa: Savas Publishing Company, 2000. [Excellent study, very fine bibilography. . Table of contents, illustrations, maps, Appendix: The Battlefields Today, Order of Battle, biliography, index. RDW]

Greene, A. Wilson. Civil War Petersburg: Confederate City in the Crucible of War. A Nation Divided: New Studies in Civil War History, ed. James L. Robertson, Jr. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2006. [363 pp., table of contents, illustrations, map, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Gregory, Edward Sanford. A Sketch of the History of Petersburg. Richmond, 1877. Rare. PPL. [Narrative history covering churches, newspapers, businesses, prominent individuals, etc., with some statiscal information in chart form. No index.]

Gusler, Wallace B. Furniture of Williamsburg and Eastern Virginia, 1710–1820. Richmond: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1979.

Gusler, Wallace B. “The Tea Tables of Eastern Virginia.” Antiques 135 (May 1989).

Gutman, Herbert G. Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America: Essays in American Working-Class and Social History. New York: Vintage, 1977.

Gudmestad, Robert H. A. Troublesome Commerce: The Transformation of the Interstate Slave Trade. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.

Hagood, Johnson. Memoirs of the War of Secession. Columbia, 1910. Reprint, Germantown, Tennessee, 1994.

Haile, Edward Wright, ed. Jamestown Narratives: Eyewitness Accounts of the Virginia Colony. The First Decade: 1607–1617. Champlain: RoundHouse, 1998. [946 pages. 18-page preface, table of contents, illustrations, maps, footnotes, bibliography. RDW]

Haines, Hiram. Mountain Buds and Blossoms. Petersburg, 1825.

Hall, Lieut. Francis. Travels in Canada and the United States. London, 1818.

Hall, John, ed. Forty Years’ Familiar Letters of James W. Alexander. New York, 1860.

Halttunen, Karen. Confidence-Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830–1870. New Haven: Yale Unoversity Press, 1982.

Hamilton, J.G. deR., ed. The Papers of Thomas of Thomas Ruffin. Raleigh, 1918.

Hamilton, Phillip. The Making and Unmaking of a Revolutionary Family: The Tuckers of Virginia, 1752–1830. Jeffersonian America. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003.

Hammer, Greene, Siler Associates. “Petersburg, Virginia community Improvement Program. Housing Analysis and Equal Opportunity Program. Washington, D.C.: Hammer, Greene, Siler Associates, 1970.

Harfield, April Lee. Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the 17th Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Harland Bartholomew & Associates. “Petersburg, Virginia City Boundaries.” St. Louis, Mo.: 1944.

Harrell, Isaac Samuel. Loyalism in Virginia. Durham, 1926.

Harris, Odell Greenlief. A History of the Seminary to Prepare Black Men for the Ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The Bishop Payne Divinity School 1878–1949. Alexandria, Va.: Protestant Episcopal Theological School, 1980. Rare. Protestant Episcipal Theological Seminary, Alexandria.

Harris, William Tell. Remarks Made During a Tour of the United States of America in the Years 1817, 1818, and 1819. London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones, 1821. [It appears that Harris visited Petersburg in 1817, while the process of rebuilding after the devastating 1815 fire was still busily under way, and while Petersburg was in the midst of a considerable real eatate boom. The bubble burst in 1819. RDW]

Harrison, Marion Clifford. Home to the Cockade City!: The Partial Biography of a Southern Town. Richmond: The House of Dietz, Publishers, 1942. [Table of contents, no notes, no bibiography, no index. RDW]

Harrison, Walter. Pickett’s Men: A Fragment of War History. New York: D. Van Nostrand, Publisher, 1870.

Hartzell, Larry. “Glory Days: Petersburg in the Antebellum Era.” Paper delivered at the Historic Petersburg Foundation Symposium, March 1990.

Hartzell, Larry. “The Exploration of Freedom in Black Petersburg, Virginia, 1865–1902,” in The Edge of the South: Life in Nineteenth Century Virginia, ed. Edward L., ed. Edward Ayers and John C. Willis, pp. 134-156. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991.

Harwell, Richard B., ed. A Confederate Diary of the Retreat from Petersburg. Atlanta, 1953.

Hassler, William Woods. A.P. Hill, Lee’s Forgotten General. Richmond, 1958.

Hawks, Francis L. A Narrative of Events Connected with the Rise and Progress of the Protestant Episcopal CHurch in Virginia. New York, 1836.

Hayes, John W. Battle-Field Map of Petersburg and Vicinity. 1911. Headley, Robert K., Jr. Genealogical Abstracts from 18th-Century Virginia Newspapers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1987. [Useful, but not comprehensive. Index. RDW]

Heartsill, William W. Fourteen Hundred and Ninety-One Days in the Confederate Army. Marshall, Texas: published by the author, 1876.

Hemphill, W. Edwin, Marvin W. Schlegel, and Sadie E. Engelberg. Cavalier Commonwealth: History and Government of Virginia. New York, 1957. Henderson, William D. 12th Virginia Infantry. Second Edition. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1984.

Henderson, William D. 41st Virginia Infantry. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1986. Henderson, William D. “A Great Deal of Enterprise: The Petersburg Cotton Mills in the Nineteeth Century.” Virginia Cavalcade 30 ((September 1981): 176-185


Henderson, William D. “From Trolley to Bus: the Development of Public Transportation in Petersburg, Virginia.” Unpublished paper, 1976.

Henderson, William D. Gilded Age City: Politics, Life and Labor in Petersburg, Virginia, 1874–1889. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1980. [Platt, Harold. “Review of Gilded Age City: Politics Life and Labor in in Petersburg, Virginia, 1874–1889.” Journal of Southern History 47:4 1981.]

Henderson, William D. “Noted Men of Petersburg, 1879–1890.” Petersburg: History Department, Richard Bland College, 1980. Petersburg Public Library.

Henderson, William D. Petersburg in the Civil War: War at the Door. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1998.

[Very useful; index not complete. Table of contents, illustrations, map, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Henderson, William D. “The Evolution of Petersburg’s Economy, 1860–1900.” The Virginia Geographer: The Journal of the Virginia Geographical Society. Vol. XVI (1984). George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. Also Richard Bland College, typescript, n.d. Rare. VSU. [Well-documented essay on the economic forces and changes at work in the postbellum period.]

Henderson, William D. The Unredeemed City: Reconstruction in Petersburg, Virginia 1865–1874. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1977. [Published dissertation. Illustrated and indexed. Many prominent citizens receive biographical treatment; ;ocal politics anayzed.]

Hening, William Walter, ed. The Statures at Large, Being aa Collection of All the Laws of Virginia. Richmond and Philadelphia, 1809–1823.

Henry, Robert S. The Story of the Confederacy. New York, 1957.

Herbert, William Henry. Frank Forester’s Horses and Horsemanship of the United States and British Provinces of North America. New York, 1857.

Heslop, Page. Pastors, Pulpits and Petersburg: A Profile of Second Baptist Church and the Cockade 1854-1994. Petersburg: Second Baptist Church, 1994.

Hill, Lawrence. “Freedom Bound.” The Beaver (February–March 2007), pp. 17-23.

Hinton, William E. “An Eye Witness.” In War Talks of Confederate Veterans. Petersburg: Fenn and Owen, 1892.

Historical Records Survey. Inventory of the County Archives of Virginia: Chesterfield County. Charlottesville, 1938.

Historical Records Survey. Inventory of the County Archives of Virginia: Dinwiddie County. Richmond, 1939.

Historical Records Survey. Inventory of the County Archives of Virginia: Prince George County. Richmond, 1941.

Hodges, E. Holly, compiler. Guide to African American Manuscripts in the collection of the Virginia Historical Society, Second Edition, Rev. and Enlarged by Harold M. Marsh, Jr., and E. Lee Shephard. Richmond: Virginia Historical Socirty, 2002. [Cites many collections of manuscripts in the collection of the Virginia Historical Society relevant to the history of the Petersburg area—RDW.]

Hodges, LeRoy. Petersburg, Virginia Economic and Municipal. Petersburg: Chamber of Commerce of Petersburg, Virginia, 1917. [Chamber of Commerce publication with much statistical information.]

Hodgkins, William Henry. The Battle of Fort Stedman (Petersburg, Virginia) March 25, 1865. Boston: privately printed, 1889. Rare. Available in print and online at PUL. [49 pp., map.]

Hodgson, Adam. Remarks During a Journey through North America in the Years 1819, 1820, and 1821 in a Series of Letters. New York, 1823. Reprint, Westport, Connecticut: Nrgro Universities Press, 1970.

Hogan, Wesley. Many Minds, One Heart—SNCC’s Dream for a New America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Hogan, Wesley. “The Modern Civil Rights Movement in Petersburg, Virginia.” Petersburg, 2008. A joint project of the City of Petersburg, the Institute for the Study of Race Relations of Virginia State University, and the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. Sixteen-page pamphlet. [The product of the Petersburg Oral History Project, spearheaded by Wesley Hogan. Table of contents, illustrations. RDW]

Hoge, Elizabeth P. “Phase 2 Architectural Evaluations of Route 1 in Colonial Heights, Virginia.” Report prepared for Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, Virginia. Richmond: Virginia Commonwealth University Arcaeological Research Center, 1988.

Holmes, William H. “Stone Implements of the Potomac-Chesapeake Tidewater Province.” In Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1897): 113-152. Washington: Smisonian Institution.

Holton, Woody. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. [231 pp.]

Hopley, Catherine Cooper. Life in the South. London, 1863.

Horn, John. Destruction of the Weldon Railroad, Deep Bottom, Globe Tavern, and Reams Station, August 14-25, 1864. Lynchburg: H.E. Howard, 1991. PUL. [270 pp., illustrations, maps.]

Horn, John. The Petersburg Campaign June 1864–April 1865. Great Campaigns. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Combined Publishing, 1993. [Table of contents, illustrations, maps, no notes, no bibliogaphy, “Guide to the Intersted Readee,” orders of battle, no index. RDW]

Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War. New York: Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, Inc., 1999. Vintage Departures. Orginally published 1998.

Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of Virginia. Charleston, 1845.

Howe, Thomas J. Wasted Valor, June 15-18, 1864. Virginia Civil War Battles and Leaders Series. The Petersburg Campaign. Lynchburg: H.E. Howard, 1988. PUL. [192 pp., illustrations, maps.]

Hughes, Thomas P., compiler. Dinwiddie County, Virginia, Data, 1762-1865. Memphis, Tennessee: Hughes, 1975.

Humphreys, A.A. The Virginia Campaign of 1864 and 1865. New York, 1883.

Hunter, Tera W. To ‘Joy My Freedom’: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Huston, James L. Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights, and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Ingram, E. Renee, compiler. In View of the Great Want of Labor: A Legislative History of African Amerrican Conscription in the Confederacy. Westminster, Maryland: Willow Bend Books, 2002. [CW; AA.]

Inman, Arthur Crew, ed. Soldier of the South: General Pickett’s War Letters to His Wife. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928.

Isaac, Rhys. The Transformation of Virginia: 1740–1790. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1982. [Essential for the study of Virginia history. Sections on Samuel Davies, who preached in Petersburg and whose sons settled in Petersburg, and Devereux Jarratt, the Dinwiddie County Anglican minister who favored the approach of Methodism. Jarratt was one of the major factors that led to Methodism takened root rapidly in the Petersburg area in the 1770s. RDW]

Jackson, David K. Poe and the Southern Literary Messenger. Richmond, 1934.

Jackson, Luther Porter. A History of the Virginia State Teachers Association. Norfolk: Guide Publishing Company, 1937. Rare. VSU & VSL

Jackson, Luther Porter. A Brief History of the Gillfield Baptist Church of Petersburg, Virginia. Petersburg: Virginia Printing Company, 1937. Rare. VSU.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Building the Negro Family during the Days of Slavery.” Virginia State College Gazette (47. March 1941), 75-82.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Business Enterprise among Free Negroes in the Early History of Petersburg,” The Petersburg Progress-Index, two parts, 8 January 1939 and 15 January 1939.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Early Striving of the Negro in Virginia,” The Journal of Negro History, 25 (January 1940), 24-34.

Jackson, Luther Porter. Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830–1860. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1942. Rare. VSU & PPL. Reprint: New York: Atheneum, 1969.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Free Negroes of Petersburg, Virginia,” The Journal of Negro History 12 (July 1927), 365-388.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Manumission in Certain Virginia Cities,” The Journal of Negro History 15 (July, 1930): 278-314.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Manumission Papers of Free People of Color of Petersburg, Virginia, Deeds of Emancipation of Negroes Freeing Negroes,” Journal of Negro History 13:4 October, 1928.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Negro Labor and Property Holding in Petersburg before Emancipation,” The Petersburg Progress-Index, seven successive Sunday editions, 4 October 1931 through 15 November 1931.

Jackson, Luther Porter. Negro Office-Holders in Virginia 1865–1895. Norfolk: Guide Quality Press, 1945. Rare. VSU & VSL.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Slavery and Emancipation in Petersburg,” The Petersburg Progress-Index, in four successive Sunday editions, 12 January 1930 through 2 February 1930. Jackson, Luther Porter. “The Early Strivings of the Negro in Virginia,” Journal of Negro History 25:1 January, 1940.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “Virginia Negro Soldiers and Seaman in the American Revolution.” The Journal of Negro History, 27 (July 1942): 247-287. VSU.

Jacquette, Henrietta Stratton, ed. South After Gettysburg, Letters of Cornelia Hancock. Philadelphia, 1937.

Jaquette, Henrietta. Letters of A Civil War Nurse, Cornelia Hancock, 1863-1865. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Jarratt, Devereux. The Life of the Reverend Devereux Jarratt, Rector of Bath Parish, Dinwiddie. Baltimore, 1806.

Jaynes, Gregory, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. The Killing Ground: Wilderness to Cold Harbor. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1986.

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. London: John Stockdale, 1787. Electronic version available free online on the Electronic Date Center, UVa.

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Ed. William Peden. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1954.

Johns, John. A Memoir of the Life of the Right Reverend William Meade. Baltimore, 1867.

Johnson, Robert U., and Clarence C. Buel, eds. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. New York, 1887–1888. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, Inc., 1956.

Johnson, William Henry. A Bird’s Eye View of Happenings in the Life of William Henry Johnson of Petersburg, Virginia. Petersburg: Owen Printing Company, 1927. Rare. VSU.

Johnson, William Henry. A Glimpse of the Happenings of the Gillfield Sabbath School, Petersburg, Virginia. 1928. Rare. VSU.

Johnson, William Henry, compiler. A Short History of the Gillfield Baptist Church of Petersburg, Virginia. Petersburg: Presses of Frank A. Owen, 1903.

Johnson, William Henry. History of the Colored Volunteer Infantry of Virginia, 1871–1899. Rare. VSU & VSL. [date? place of publicatio? publisher?]

Johnson Reagon, Bernice. “African Disapora Women: The Making of Cultural Workers.” Feminist Studies 12 (Spring 1986): 77-90.

Johnston, Henry P. The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781. New York, 1881.

Johnston, James Hugo. Race Relations in Virginia and Miscegenation in the South, 1776–1860. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970. Rare. VSU.

Johnston, James Hugo. “The Participation of Negroes in the Government of Virginia from 1877 to 1888.” The Journal of Negro History 14:3 July 1929, 251-271.

Jones, Howard Mumford. The Literature of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Second Edition. With the Aid of Sue Bonner Walcutt. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1968. Originally published in 1946 as one of the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. [Table of contents, illustrations, footnotes, index. RDW]

Jones, John B. A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary. 2 vols. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott and Co., 1866. New York, 1935.

Jones, J. William. Christ in the Camp or Religion in the Confederate Army. Richmond: B.F. Johnson and Co., 1887. Jones, J. William. Life and Letters of Robert E. Lee. Washington, 1906.

Jones, J. William. Personal Remiscences, Anecdotes, and Letters of General Robert E. Lee. New York, 1875. Jones, Richard L. Dinwiddie County: Carrefour of the Commonwealth. Dinwiddie Court House, Virginia: Board of Supervisors of Dinwiddie County, 1976. (Printed by Whittet & Shepperson.

Jones, Richard L. The Muir-Epes Murder of 1846, Dinwiddie County, Virginia. Richmond: The Dietz Press, 1993. [Set in Dinwiddie and Petersburg; African Americans deeply involved. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, no footnotes, no bibliography, no index. RDW]

Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812. `968. Reprint, Baltimore: Penguin, 1969.

Kapp, Frederick. The Life of Frederick William von Steuben. New York, 1859.

Keckley, Elizabeth. Behind the Scenes: Formerly a Slave, but More Recently Modiste, and Friend to Mrs. Linclon, or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House. Ed. Frances Smith Foster. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001. Originally published, New York: G.W. Carleton and Company, 1868. This edition originally published, Chicago: R.R. Donnelly, 1998.

Keiley, Anthony M. In Vinculis; or, The Prisoner of War. Being, the Experience of a Rebel in Two Federal Pens, Interspersed with Reminiscences of the Late War; Anecdotes of Southern Generals, etc. by a Virginia Confederate. Petersburg: Daily Express Office, 1866. Available online at PUL. [216 pp.]

Keiley, Anthony M. Prisoner of War, or, Five Months among the Yankees: Being a Narrative of the Crosses, Calaminites, and Consolations of a Petersburg Militiaman during an Enforced Summer Residence North. by A. Rifleman. Richmond: West & Johnson, 1865? Available on microform at PUL. [120 pp,]

Kellogg, Thelma Louise. “The Life and Works of John Davis.” The Maine Bulletin (June 1924).

Kelly, Robin. “But a Local Phase of a World Problem: Black History’s Global Vision, 1883-1950.” The Journal of American History, 86 (December 1999): 1045-1977.

Kemper, James Lawson, Governor of Virginia, 1874–1878. Appendix to the Governor’s Message . . . . Richmond, Walker, 1874. [“Proceedings of a conference with Virginia creditors, including an exposition of the debt, finances, and taxation of the state, by the governor, on the tenth day of November, 1874.—Report of John O. Steger relative to the condition and management of the capitol basement offices.—Plan providing for a constitutional currency, proposed by Hon. R.M.T. Hunter, state treasurer.—Correspondence of the governor with the agent of the American Bond-funding and Banking Association (Limited) in respect to the recapitalization of the debt of Va.—Correspondence between the governor and the President of the United States, in relation to the employment of military force at Petersburg.” PUL]

Kerr-Ritchie, Jeff R. “Black Republicans in the Virginia Tobacco Fields, 1867–70.” The Journal of Negro History 86 (Winter 2001): 12-29.

Key, V.O. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf, 1949. New ed. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984. [One of the best books about the Virginia political scene ever. RDW]

Kierner, Cynthia A. Scandal at Bizarre: Rumor and Reputation in Jefferson’s America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Kinard, John. Battle of the Crater.

King, Joseph Leonard, Jr. Dr. George William Bagley: A Study of Virginian Literature 1850–1880. New York: Columbia University Press, 1927. Kessinger reprint, 2008. [Bagby, a journalist and a humorist, edited a Petersburg newspaper in the years following the Civil War. RDW]

Kingsbury, Susan Myra, ed. The Records of the Virginia Company of London. Washington, 1906–1935.

Kirby, Jack Temple. Mockingbird Song: Ecological Landscapes of the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. Kirby, Jack Temple. Poquosin: A Study of Rural Landscape & Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. [Elegant and important work in ecohistory that focuses on the region between the James and the Albemarle Sound. Table of Contents, illustrations, figures, maps, endnotes, index. RDW]

Kirk, Russell. John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in Conservative Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Kirk, Russell. John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in American Politics, with selected speeches and letters. Fourth Edition. Indianapolis: The Liberty Fund, Inc., 1997.

Knapp, John. Tobacco in Virginia. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Kneebone, John T. Key to Survey Reports and Microfilm of the Virginia Colonial Records Project. Ed. Jon Kukla. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1990. [The Virginia Colonial Records Project surveyed records in Great Britain pertaining to colonial Virginia. This weighty tome is necessary to unlock those even more voluminous, and extraordinarily important, records. 957 pp. RDW]

Knight, Charles Louis. Negro Housing in Certain Virginia Cities. Richmond: The William Byrd Press, Inc., 1927.

Knight, Henry C. Letters from the South and West. Boston, 1824.

Kober, Nancy. With Paintbrush & Shovel: Preserving Virginia’s Wildflowers. Watercolors by Bessie Niemeyer Marshall. Donna M.E. Ware, Botanical Consultant. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia and the Petersburg Garden Club, 2000. [The story of the Lee Park Herbarium Collection and of the WPA women’s project that produced it, and 270 pages in color of Niemeyer’s very final botanical paintings. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, index of plants illustrated, general index. RDW]

Krick, Robert E.L. Staff Officers in Gray. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. [CW.]

Krick, Robert K. Lee’s Colonels. Dayton, Ohio: Press of Morningside Bookshop, 1979. [CW.]

Kukla, Jon. Political Institutions in Virginia, 1619–1660. New York: Garland Publishing, 1989.

Kukla, Jon. Speakers and Clerks of the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1643–1776. RIchmond: Virginia State Library, 1981.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680–1800.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

La Bree, Ben. The Confederate Soldier in the Civil War. Louisville, 1895.

Lane, Mills, ed. Dear Mother, Don’t Grieve about me. If I get killed, I’ll only be dead: Letters from Georgia Soldiers in the Civil War. Savannah: Library of Georgia, 1990.

Langston, John Mercer. From the Virginia Plantation to the National Capital; Or, The First and Only Negro Representative in Congress from the Old Dominion. Hartford, Connecticut: American Publishing Company, 1894.

Lankford, Nelson D., ed. An Irishman in Dixie: Thomas Conolly’s Diary of the Fall of the Confederacy. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988. [CW.]

la Rochefoucauld Liancourt, Francois. Travels through the United States of North America. London, 1800.

Lassiter, Francis Rives. Arnold’s Invasion of Virginia, 1781. New York, 1901. [Arnold was second in command to Phillips at the Battle of Petersburg (25 Apreil 1781). Lassiter was a Petersburg resident.]

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry. The Journal of Latrobe. New York, 1905.

Latrobe, Charles Joseph. The Rambler in North America. London, 1835.

Laughton, John E. “The Sharpshooters of Mahone’s Brigade.” Southern Historical Society Papers 12. [CW.]

Laurie, Bruce. Artisans into Workers: Labor in Nineteenth Century America. New York: Noonday, 1989.

Lawing, Mike, and Carolyn Lawing, eds. My Dearest Friend: The Civil War Correspondence of Cornelia McGimsey and Lewis Warlick. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, n.d. [CW.]

Lebsock, Suzanne. The Free Women of Petersburg: Status and Culture in a Southern Town, 1784–1860. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984. [Award-winning study; essential for the study of Petersburg’s history. Table of contents, endnotes, essay on sources, index. Antebellum history from a specific perspective. Good bibilography for Petersburg for the antebellum period. RDW]

Lebsock, Suzanne. “Free Black Women and the Question of Matriarchy: Petersburg, Virginia, 1784–1820.” Feminist Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Women and Work (Summer, 1982), 270-293.

Ledoux, Tom, ed. Quite Ready to Be Sent Somewhere: The Civil War Letters of Aldace Freeman Walker. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Trafford Publishing, 2002. [CW.]

Lee, Fitzhugh. General Lee. New York, 1899.

Lee, Henry. Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department. New York, 1869.

Lee, Jesse. A Short History of the Methodists in the United States of America. Baltimore, 1810. [Lee was from the Petersburg area. RDW]

Lee, Leroy M. The Life and Times of the Reverend Jesse Lee. Richmond, 1848.

Lee, Robert E., Jr. Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee. New York, 1924.

Leib, Jonathan L. “Robert E. Lee, ‘Race,’ Representation and Redevelopment along Richmond, Virginia’s Canal Walk.” Southern Geographer 44 (2004): 236-262.

Leon, Louis. Diary of a Tar Heel Confederate Soldier. Charlotte, North Carolina: Stone Publishing Co., 1913. [CW.]

Levine, Renan. “A Whodunit from ‘ol Virginia: Who killed the Readjuster Party?” A Paper Prepared for Presentation at the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Scinece Association Meetings, April 26-28, 2002. Available for reading or downloading as a doc file at Duke.

LeMay, J.E., ed. Robert Bolling Woos Ann Miller: Love and Courtship in Colonial Virginia, 1760. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

Lewis, Ronald L. Coal, Iron, and Slaves: Industrial Slavery in Maryland and Virginia, 1715–1865. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood,1979.

Leyburn, John. A Discourse in Commemoration of the Bicentenary of of the Westminster Assembly: Preached to the Congregation of the Presbyterian Church, Petersburg, Virginia, on Saturday Morning, 2 July, 1843; Together with a Discourse on Predestination, Preached to the Same Congregation on Sabbath Morning, June 18th, 1843. Petersburg: s.n., 1843. PUL. [40 pp.]

Leyburn, John. Scriptural Baptism Explained and Defended: Being the Substance of Two Discourses Preached in the Presbyterian Church, Petersburg, Virginia. By the Rev. John Leyburn, Pastor of the Church. Petersburg, 1847. Available at PUL. [42 pp.]

Link, William A. Roots of Secession: Slavery and Politics in Antebellum Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Lipscomb, Andrew A., ed. Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Washington, 1903–1905.

Long, A.L. Memoirs of Robert E. Lee. New York, 1886.

Longacre, Edward G. Army of Amateurs: General Benjamin F. Butler and the Army of the James, 1863–1865. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1997.

[Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, essay on sources, index. RDW]

Longacre, Edward G. “Black Troops in the Army of the James, 1863–65.” Military Affairs 45, (Feb. 1981): 1-8.

Longstreet, James. From Manassas to Appomattox: Memoirs of the Civil War. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1896. Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution. New York, 1853.

Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. New York, 1868.

Lowe, David W. Meade’s Army: The Private Notebooks of Lt. Colonel Theodore Lyman. Foreword by John Y. Simon. Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University Press, 2007. [Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Ludlow, N.M. Dramatic Life as I Found It. St. Louis, 1880.

Lutz, Francis Earle. Chesterfield: An Old Virginia County. Richmond: William Byrd Press, 1954.

Lutz, Francis Earle. The Prince George-Hopewell Story. Richmond: [Hopewell] Area Historical Commission, 1957.

Lyell, Charles. Travels in North America. New York, 1845.

Lykes, Richard Wayne. Campaign for Petersburg. Washington: United States of America, National Park Service, 1970. PUL. [75 pp., illustrations.]

Lykes, Richard Wayne. Petersburg Battlefields. Washington: United States of America, National Park Service, 1951. National Park Service. Hiatorical Handbook Series, no. 13. Available online at PUL.

Macfarland, William H. An Address on the Life, Character, and Public Services of the Late Hon. Benjamin Watkins Leigh. Richmond, 1851. [Both Macfarland and Leigh were Petersburgers at one point or another, and went on the very important careers. RDW]

Macrae, David. The Americans at Home. New York, 1952.

Malet, William Wyndham. An Errand to the South in the Summer of 1862. London, 1863.

Malone, Dumas. Jefferson & His Time. Six Volumes. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia. Volume I: Jefferson the Virginian. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1948. Volume II: Jefferson and the Rights of Man. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1951. Volume III: Jeffferson and the Ordeal of Liberty. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962. Volume IV: Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801–1805. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1970. Volume V: Jefferson the President: Second Term, 1805–1809. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1974. Volume VI: Jefferson the Sage. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1981. [Jefferson had many connections with the Petersburg area, and was no stranger to the town and its region, even as a young man. His grandather lived nearby, in southeastern Chesterfield County, his father grew up there, and he had many close relatives in the area. In the 1760s, while a student at W&M, he wrote a friend that he intended to follow the Players to Petersburg when they went. His wife and father-in-law were from nearby as well. After his wife died, his daughters lived with Epes relatives at Eppington, on the Appomattox, in Chesterfield, upstream from Petersburg. When he returned home from France, he found himself, with his brothers-in-law, embroiled in debt that he had inherited from his father-in-law. The agent for the creditors was Richard Hanson, of Petersburg. One of the two major cases he fought in the courts, and won. The other he agreed he owed, and, early in 1790, signed an agreement at Monticello to pay, upon certain terms, along with his brothers-in-law. A month later, after a visit to Eppington to see his daughters, and on the way to New York to take on his new role as the nation’s first Secretary of State, he stopped in Petersburg to visit Hanson, where he signed a series of bonds to be paid over a series of years. He paid them off, but the effort kept him financuially strapped the rest of his life. The leading British debt case was brought by Hanson against Jefferson’s former guardian, Dr. Thomas Walker, and, when the trial in that case fell apart because of an illness in the family of one of the justices, the lead case was shifted to one against Daniel Hylton, who had married Jefferson’s niece. This case, Ware v. Hylton, went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court and established the primacy of treaties in American Constitutional Law. The case was heard on February 6 and 8-12, 1796, and decided for the plaintiff on March 7, 1796. It was the only case John Marshall argued before the Supreme Court, and the only one he lost. U.S. Reports, Vol. 3, p199. Jefferson & His Time: Vol. I, 484 pp.; Vol. II, 523 pp.; Vol. III, 545 pp.; Vol. IV, 539 pp.; Vol. V, 704 pp.; Vol. VI, 557 pp. RDW]

Manarin, Louis H. Richmond at War: The Minutes of the City Council, 1861–1865. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966. [CW.]

Martin, Joseph. A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer of Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Charlottesville: Joseph Martin, Mosely & Tomkins, Printers, 1835.

Marvel, William. Burnside.

Mason, George Carrington. Colonial Churches of Tidewater Virginia. Richmond, 1945.

Mason, Jonathan. Extracts from a Diary. Cambridge, 1885.

Matthews, J. Brander. These Many Years. New York, 1817. [Matthews taught literature at Columbia University, and was the first professor of dramatic literature in the United States. His grandfather was from Petersburg. It is apparent that this autobiography touches upon his Petersburg background. RDW]

Maurice, Sir Frederick. Robert E. Lee, The Soldier. Boston, 1925.

McAllister, J. Gray. Sketch of Captain Thompson McAllister, Co. A. 27th Virginia Regiment. Petersburg: Fenn & Owen Printers and Binders, 1896. Available om mocroform at PUL. [39 pp.]

McAlpine, Newton. “Sketch of Company I, 61st Infantry, Mahone’s Brigade, C.S.A.” Southern Historical Society Papers 24.

McCabe, W. Gordon. “Defense of Petersburg.” Southern Historical Society Papers 2.

McCabe, W. Gordon. The Defence of Petersburg: Address of Capt. W. Gordon McCabe . . . before the Virginia Division of the Army of Northern Virginia, at Their Annual Meeting, Held in the Capitol in Richmond, Va., November 1st, 1876. Richmond: G.W. Gary, printer, 1876. Available in print and on microform at PUL.

McCardell, John. The Idea of a Southern Nation: Southern Nationalists and Southhern Nationalism, 1830–1860. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.

McCary, Ben C. “Survey of Virginia Fluted Points.” Special Publication 12 (1984). Richmond: Archeoloical Society of Virginia.

McCormick, Richard P. The Second American Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966.

McCrea, Henry Vaughan. Red Dirt and Isinglass: A Wartime Biography of a Confederate Soldier. Marianna, Florida: Chippola Press, 1992. [CW.]

McCreery, John. A Selection, From the Ancient Music of Ireland, Arranged for the Flute or Violin, Some of the Most Admired Melodies, Adapted to America Poetry. Chiefly Composesd by John McCreery. To Which Is Prefixed Historical and Critical Observations on Ancient Irish Music. Petersburg: Yancey & Burton, Intelligencer Press, Bank Street, 1824. [American lyrics by John Daly Burk. McCreery lived for a time, during this period, in Petersburg, and was involved with Petersburg residents (and fellow Irishmen) John Daly Burk and Dr. Thomas Robinson in a project that would transform the ancient melodies of Ireland into modern patriotic music of the American States. Out of this venture came McCreery’s “The American Star,” srt to the music of “Captain O’Kane,” which, during the War of 1812 rivaled “The Star-Spangled Banner” in popularity. Charles Campbell says that the preface is by Dr. Thomas Robinson. RDW]

McCreery, John. The Ancient and Modern Music of Ireland with Original Songs. Copywrite 13 February 1810. [Was it ever printed? So far, it is hard to say. Perhaps it became, more than a decade later, A Selection, from the Ancient Music of Ireland. RDW]

McIlwaine, H.R., ed. Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia. Richmond, 1925–1030.

McIlwaine, H.R., ed. Journals of the Council of the State of Virginia. Richmond, 1931–1932.

McIlwaine, H.R., ed. Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia. Richmond, 1908–1815.

McIlwaine, H.R., ed. Legislative Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia. Richmond, 1918–1919.

McIlwaine, Richard. Memories of Three Score Years and Ten. Richmond, 1908.

McKay, Charlotte Elizabeth Johnson. Stories of Hospital and Camp. Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, 1876. New-York Historical Society (three noncirculating copies). Available for reading free online at Google Books. Available for reading or downloading free online at Available Rare Books, PUL.

[McKay spent much of 1864–1865 in a Union Cavalry hospital camp, then afterwards at the Fairgrounds Hospital. Subsequently she distributed clothes to the destitute at first the Poplar Springs and then the Petersbyrg Freedmen’s camps, until 1867. Much useful material by an intelligent and perceptive woman, compiled and written a decade after the events. RDW]

McKee, Marianne M. “The Wood-BÕŸe County Maps od Virginia.” The Virginia Genealogical Society Newsletter 21 (May–June 1995): 1-2. [Early National.] [John Wood, an eccentric Scottish immigrant, taught in Petersburg from 1812 until 1816, when, at the recommendation of Thomas Jefferson, he was named chief surveyor of Virginia’s mapping project, and called upon by the Commonwealth to do a complete set of 102 county maps, and then to compile them into a state map. Starting by 1819, he had completed 96 of the county maps by the time he died in 1822, and drafts of the other six. Herman BÕŸe then took over the project, completed the remaining six county maps, and constructed the full state map, which was distributed in 1827. Forty-eight of the original county maps survive, including Amelia, Dinwiddie, and Henrico counties, which are held by the Library of Virginia, which also has a photocopy of the Chesterfield map. Apparently no copy of the Prince George map is extant. RDW]

McKee, Stephenson, and Marianne McKee, eds. Virginia in Maps: Four Centuries of Settlement, Growth, and Development. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2000.

McLaurin, Melton Alonza. The Knights of Labor in the South. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1978.

McMaster, F.W. “The Battle of the Crater, June 30, 1864.” Southern Historical Society Papers 10. [CW.]

McMurry, Richard M., ed. Footprints of a Regiment: A Recollection of the First Georgia Regulars, 1861–1865. Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1992. [CW.]

McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Ballantine, 1989. CW.] Meade, William. Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of Virginia. Philadelphia, 1857.

Melish, John. Travels in the United States of America. Philadelphia, 1812.

Mendell, [Sarah], and [Charlotte] Hosmer, Misses. Notes of Travel and Life. New York: Authors, 1854.

Merrell, James H. The Indians’ New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European Contact through the End of Removal. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1989. Paperback: New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1991. Preview available on Google Books. [400 pp.]

Merrell, James H. “The Indians’ New World: The Catawba Experience.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd sewries, 4 (October 1984): 538-568. Available online at, in PDF format.

Merrell, James H. The Catawbas (Indians of North America). Ed. Frank W. Porter. New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1989. [For young adults.]

Merrell, James H. “Virginia Reels.” Review of Holton, Woody, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. H-Amindian, H-Net Reviews,

Merington, Marguerite, ed. The Custer Story. New York: Devin-Adair Company, 1950.

Military History Society of Massachusetts. Papers of the Military History Society of Massachusetts. Wilmington, North Carolina: Broadfoot Pub., 1989–1990. 15 vols. PUL. [1. Campaigns in Virginia, 1861–62; 2. The Virginia Campaign of 1862; 3. Campaigns in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, 1862–63; 4. The Wilderness Campaign, May–June 1864; 5. Petersburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg; 6. Shenandoah Campaigns of 1862–1864; 7. Campaign in Kentucky and Tennessee, including the Battle of Chickamauga, 1862–1864; 8. Mississippi, Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, 1861–1864; 9. OPeratons on the Atlantic Coast, 1861–1865, Virginia 1862, 1864, Vicksburg; 10. Critical Sketches of Some of the Federal and Confederate Commanders; 11. Naval Actions and Operations against Cuba and Porto Rico, 1593–1815; 12. Naval Actions and History, 1799–1898; 13. Civil and Mexican Wars, 1861, 1848; 14. Civil War and Miscellaneous Papers; 15. Biographical Sketches of the Contributors.]

Miller, Arnold W. The Status of a Baptized Child. The Substance of a Discourse Preached by Appointment of the Synod of Virginia, on the 8th of October, 1859, and Published at Its Request, by Arnold W. Miller. Petersburg: A.F. Crutchfield & Co., for Arnold W. Miller, 1860. Available at PUL. [84 pp.]

Miller, Francis T., ed. The Photographic History of the Civil War. New York, 1911–1912.

Miller, H. Augustus, Jr. “The Story of a High School: Petersburg, Virginia.” Southern Association Quarterly (November 1946).

Mills, Laurens Tenney. A South Carolinian Family. n.p., 1960. [CW.]

Mims, Edwin. Sidney Lanier. Boston, 1905. [CW.]

Minchinton, Walter E., Celia M. King, and Peter B. Waite, eds. Virginia Slave-Trade Statistics. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1984.

Mitchell, Broadus. William Gregg, Factory Master of the Old South. Chapel Hill, 1928. Reprint, New York: Octagon, 1866. [Gregg lived in Petersburg early in his career. EDW]

Mitchell, Henry H.. Black Church Beginnings: The Long-Hidden Realities of the First Years. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2004.

Moger, Alan W. Virginia Bourbonism to Byrd, 1870–1925. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1968.

Montgomery, Dennis. A Link Among the Days: The Life and Times of The Reverend Doctor W.A.R. Goodwin, The Father of Colonial Williamsburg. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1998. [Goodwin’s first church was St. John’s, on West Washington Street in Petersburg, and his first wife was a Petersburg girl. He raised the money for construction of St. John’s, supervised its design and construction, and saw it to consecration. Later, when he had moved on to Bruton Parish in Williamsburg, and was supervising a “restoration” of that church, he sent Bruton’s 19th-century font to St. John’s. Maddeningly, this very interesting book about a very important figure in 20th-century Virginia history has no footnotes and no bibliography, even though it is clear that Montgomery had access to great materials. Table of contents, illustrations, no notes, no bibliography, index. RDW]

Montgomery, George F., Jr., ed. Georgia Sharpshooter: The Civil War Diary and Letters of William Rhadamanthus Montgomery, 1839–1906. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1997. [CW.]

Moore, Arthur Cotton. The Powers of Preservation: New Life for Urban Historic Places. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. [Contains a brief section entitled “Petersburg Virginia,” pp. 135-138, outlining Moore’s plan to bring the Appomattox into the heart of Old Town, at Market Square. He concludes, “Some cities have the energy to fight for survival, and others, like Petersburg, . . choose to slde into decline through a kind of common consent.” Table of contents, illustrations, bibliography, index. RDW]

Moore, James T. “Black Militancy in Readjuster Virginia, 1879–1883.” Journal of Southern History 41 (May 1975): 167-186.

Moore, James Tice, and Edward Younger. The Governors of Virginia, 1860–1878. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1982. [439 pp.]

Mordecai, Samuel. Virginia, Especially Richmond, in By-Gone Days. Richmond, 1860. [Mordecai lived in Petersburg for a time early in his career. RDW]

Morgan, Lynda J. Emancipation in Virginia’s Tobacco Belt, 1850–1870. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

Morrill, Lily Logan, ed. My Confederate Girlhood: The Memoirs of Kate Virginia Cox Logan. Richmond, 1932. [CW.]

Morrison, Alfred J., ed. “Letters of Roger Atkinson.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 15 (1908).

Morrison, Alfred J. Travels in Virginia in Revolutionary Times. Lynchburg, 1922.

Morse, Jedidiah. An American Gazetteer. Boston, 1797.

Moseley, Ronald H., ed. The Stillwell Letters: A Georgian in Longstreet’s Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 2002. [CW.]

Mouer, L. Daniel. “Chesapeake Creoles: An Approach to Colonial Folk Culture.” In The Archaeology of Seventeenth-Century Virginia, ed. Theodore Reinhart and Dennis J. Pogue. Archaeological Society of Virginia, 1993.

Mouer, L. Daniel. “The Occaneechee Connection: Social Networks and Ethnic Complexity at the Fall Line in the 16th and 17th centuries.” Presented to the annual meeting of the Middle Atlantic Archaeological Coference, Rehobeth, Del., 1985.

Mouer, L. Daniel. “‘We are not the veriest beggars in the world . . .’: The People of Jordan’s Journey.” Paper presented to the annual conference of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Vancouver, 1994.

Moye, J. Todd. Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississsippi, 1945-1986. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. [See especially “Questions That Liberalism Is Incapable of Answering—Organizing Alternatives, 1964-1977,” pp. 148-170.]

Muhlenberg, Henry A. The Life of Major General Peter Muhlenberg. Philadelphia, 1849. [Muhlenberg was second in command, behind Baron von Steuben, of the American forces in the Battle of Petersburg, 25 April 1781. RDW]

Murray, Amelia. Letters from the United States, Cuba, and Canada. New York, 1856.

Murray, Henry A. Lands of the Slave and the Free. London, 1857.

Neese, George M. Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery. New York: Neale Publishing, 1911. [CW.]

Nevins, Allen, ed. A Diary of Battle: The Personal Journals of Colonel Charles S. Wainwright, 1961–1865. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1962. [CW.]

Newman, Simon P. Parades and Politics of the Streets: Festive Culture in the Early American Republic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.

Nichols, C.M., ed. International Magazine of History and the Daily Progress Descriptive and Illustrating Petersburg, Virginia. Petersburg: Virginia Printing and Manufacturing Company, 1912.

Nolen, J. Bennett. Lafayette in America Day by Day. Baltimore, 1934.

Nunnally, Shayla. “Advantage, Agency, and Unrest: Jim Crow, Disenfranchisement, and the Re-Politicization of African Americans in Petersburg, Virginia, 1929–1952.” Voices from within the Veil. (Alexander, et al. eds.) Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008.

Neville, Ashley. “Courthouse Historic District National Register Nomination.” Richmond: Department of Historic Resources, 1990, File No. 123-103.

Nugent, Nell Marion. Cavaliers and Pioneers. Richmond, 1934.

Oakes, James. The Ruling Race: A History of American Stockholders. 1982. Reprint, New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.

Oates, Stephen B. The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion. New York: New American Library, 1976.

O’Gorman, Tim, and Steve Anders. Fort Lee. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing, 2003. Postcard History Series.

Okerlund, Gary, Dennis B. Blanton, Donal W. Linebaugh, Scott M. Hudlow, A. James Mamary, and Leslie Naranjo-Lupold. “Cultural and Natural Resources Preservation Plan, City of Petersburg, Virginia.” Submitted to the Department of Planning and Community Development, City of Petersburg, by Okerlund Associates, Charlottesville, and the William and Mary Center for Archaeological Research, College of Willam and Mary, 1992.

Olmsted, Frederick Law. A Journey to the Seaboard Slave States, with Remarks on Their Economy. New York: Dix and Edwards, 1856. UNC. Electronic Edition: Chapel Hill: Academic Affairs Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2001. Documenting the American South. Available on line for reading or downloading, at [Very important in its day, with permanent value. Very little on Petersburg itself, but wonderful descriptions of the trip by railway from Richmond to Petersburg and from Petersburg to City Point to meet the steamboar. A lovely, lingering description of a trip into the Petersburg countryside by train & a rented filly named Jane, to visit Mr. W. RDW] Olmsted, Frederick Law. The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller’s Observances on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slave States. Based upon Three Former Volumes of Journeys and Investigations by the Same Author. Two volumes. New York: Mason Brothers, 1861. Second Edition: New York: Mason Brothers, 1862. Often reprinted. For example, from the 1862 Second Edition, edited, with an introduction, by Arthur M. Schlesinger. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953. Reprinted: Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 1996. [A condensation in two volumes of three previously-published books recounting his travels through the American South. RDW]

Olmsted, Frederick Law. The Slave States before the Civil War. Ed. by Harvery Wish. New York: Capricorn, 1959. Orange, Charlotte. Learning about Petersburg: African Americans in Petersburg’s History. Ettrick: Virginia State University, 1992. VSU and PPL. [Educational book prepared for youths.] Osborne, Frederick M., ed. Private Osborne, Massachusetts Twenty-Third Volunteers. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Company, 1999. [CW.] Owen, William Miller. In Camp and Battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1885. Owen, William Miller. “The Artillery Defenders of Fort Gregg.” Southern Historical Society Papers 19. [CW.]

Palmer, Abraham J. The History of the Forty-Eighth New York State Volunteers. New York, 1885. [CW.]

Palmer, Beverly Wilson, ed. The Selected Letters of Charles Sumner. 2 vols. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990. [Antebellum; CW; Postbellum.]

Palmer, William P., and others, eds. Calrndar of Virginia State Papers.and Other Manuscripts. Richmond, 1875–1893.

Parent, Anthony S., Jr. Fowl Means: The Formation of a Slave Society in Virginia, 1660-1740. Williamsburg: The Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2003. {Table of contents, illustrations, maps, bibliographical footnotes, index. RDW]

Parker, Thomas H. History of the 51st Regiment of P.V. and V.V. From Its Organization at Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, Pa. In 1861 to Its Being Mustered Out of the United States Service at Alexandria, Va. July 27 1865. Philadelphia, 1869.

Pearce, T.R., ed. Diary of Captain Henry A. Chambers. Wendell, North Carolina: Broadfoot’s Bookmark, 1983. [CW.]

Pearson, Charles Chilton. The Readjuster Movement in Virginia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1917. [Postbellum.]

Peck, George B., Jr. A Recruit before Petersburg. Providence, 1880. [CW.] Pember, Phoebe Yates. A Southern Woman’s Story. New York, 1879.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips, eds. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-slaves. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976. [Includes interviews with 22 Petersburg residents. Susie R.C. Byrd, of Harrison Street in Petersburg, was the most prolific interviewer, interviewing 42 ex-slaves in all. Appendix 8, “Susie R.C. Byrd Notes on Interviewing Ex-Slaves,” was written by Byrd. Appendix 11 is an “Annotated Bibliography of Slave Narratives Dealing with Slaveriy in Virginia.” Table of contents, illustrations, footnotes, appendices, index. RDW]

Perry, William S., ed. Historical Collections Relating to the American Colonial Church. Hartford, 1870.

Peters, John O.. Blandford Cemetery: Death and Life in Petersburg, Virginia. Petersburg: Dietz Press, for the Historic Blandford Cemetery Foundation, 2005.

Peters, John O., and Margaret T. Peters. Virginia’s Historic Courthouses. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Petersburg, City of. “City of Petersburg Capital Improvement Plan 1972–1978.” Department of Planning and Community Development.

Petersburg Common Council. The Charter and Laws of the City of Petersburg. Petersburg: O. Ellyson, 1852.

Petersburg Library Association. Catalogue of the Library of Petersburg, Virginia: April 13th, 1854. New York: D. Appleton & Company, printer, 1854. Available online at PUL.

Petersburg Railroad Company. Report of the Petersburg Railroad Company to the Board of Public Works of Virginia, September 3, 1846. Richmond: Shepherd and Colin, printer, 1847. Available online at PUL.

Pfanz, Donald C. Abraham Lincoln at City Point: March 20-April 9, 1865. Virginia Civil War Battles and Leaders. The Petersburg Campaign. Lynchburg: H.E. Howard, 1989. PUL.

Pfanz, Donald C. Grant’s Cabin: City Point Unit, Petersburg National Battlefield, Va. Harpers Ferry Center: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, 1990? [54 pp.; illustrations.] PUL.

Pfanz, Donald C.. The Depot Field Hospital At City Point. Petersburg: Petersburg National Battlefield, NPS, 1988. Phillips, Ulrich B. Life and Labor in the Old South. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1929. Pickett, Lasalle Corbell. Pickett and His Men. Atlanta: Foote and Davies, 1899. [CW.]

Picott, J. Rupert. History of the Virginia Teachers Association. Washington,D.C.: National Education Association, 1975.

Pickard, Kate E.R. The Kidnapped and the Ransomed. Reprint, n.p.: Negro Publication Sociryt of America, 1941.

Pleasants, Henry, Jr. The Tragedy of the Crater. Boston, 1938.

Plunkett, Michael. Afro-American Sources in Virginia: A Guide to Manuscripts. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990. [Lists collections of African-American sources at twenty-three Virginia libraries.]

Pollock, Edward. Historical and Industrial Guide to Petersburg, Virginia. Petersburg: n.p., 1884. (1882?) [Illustrated with engravings of buildings and street scenes; many ads for local firms; contains many brief histories of local businesses and other institutions. RDW]

Porter, David Henry. Incidents and Anecdotes of the Civil War. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1885. [CW.]

Porter, Horace. Campaigning with Grant. New York: The Century Company, 1897. [CW.] [Brig. Gen. Porter served on Grant’s staff during the last year of the Civil War. RDW]

Power, Tyrone. Impressions of America. London, 1836. [Includes a visit to Petersburg. RDW]

Price, Isaiah.History of the Ninety-Seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry During the War of the Rebellion, 1861–1865, With the Biographical Sketches of Its Field and Staff Officers and a Complete Record of Each Officer and Enlisted Man. Philadelphia, 1875.

Price, Jacob M. Tobacco in Atlantic Trade: The Chesapeake, London and Glasgow 1675–1775. Brookfield, Vt: Variorum Ashgate Publishing, 1995.

Prown, Jonathan. “A Cultural Analysis of Furniture-Making In Petersburg, Virginia, 1760–1820.” Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts 18 (May 1992): 1-173. [Definitive book-length article. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, “Appendix A: Petersburg’s Furniture-makers,” Appendices B-G: inventories of Petersburg cabinet-makers, endnotes, no bibliography, no index. RDW]

Pryor, Sara R. (Mrs. Roger A. Pryor.) My Day: Reminiscences of a Long Life. New York: Macmillan Company, 1907. [Antebellum; CW; Postbellum.]

Pryor, Sara R. (Mrs. Roger A. Pryor.) Reminiscences of Peace and War. New York: Macmillan, 1904. [Antebellum; CW; Postbellum.]

Pugh, Otis A., and William L. Stanton. An Outline of the History of West End Baptist Church 1882–1957. Petersburg, 1957.

Purcell, Wayne D. The Virginia Tobacco Industry in a World of Change. Virginia, Tech. 1994.

Putnam, Sallie B. Richmond during the War: Four Years of Personal Observations. New York: G.W. Carleton and Co., 1867. [CW.]

Ragan, Mark K. Union and Confederate Submarine Warfare in the Civil War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2001. First published, El Dorado Hills, California: Savas Publishing Company, 2001. [Extensive discussion of the first U.S. Navy submarine, the USS Alligator, sent to City Point to prey on Confederate targets in1862. Proving impractible in the shallow waters of the Appomatox and the James, the Alligator was sent to Washington to be retrofitted with a propeller, rather than oars. In other ways she was very advanced, but she sank off Cape Hatteras on the way to Charleston. Brief mention of the patent taken out by Petersburg machinist and bell-hanger John G, Patton, for a “submarine battery,” at the Confederate Patent Office, on 14 October 1862. A bronze model of a submarine found in the ruins of the patent office after the fall of Richmond is thought to be Patton’s model. It is in private hands. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Randolph, Peter. From Slave Cabin to the Pulpit: The Autobiography of Rev. Peter Randolph; The Southern Question Answered; and Sketches of Slave Life. Boston: James H. Earle, 1893. [“Randolph was born in 1820 in Prince George County, Virginia and was emancipated by his owner in 1847. The main body of the narrative contains little information on slave life. Randolph includes an earlier book published in 1855, Sketches of Slave Life, which is polemical bur informative. Randolph discusses slave treatment, food, clothing, religion, and other topics.” Charles L. Perdue, Jr., et al, in Weevils in the Wheat.]

Randolph, Peter. Sketches of Slave Life. 1855.

Randolph, Wassell. The Reverend George Robertson. Memphis, 1948. [Robertson was the minister for Bristol Parish in the early eighteenth century. RDW]

Redford, John C. The Student’s Library: An Entertaining anf Useful Work, Original and Selected. Petersburg: Whitworth & Yancey, 2828. Available online and on microform at PUL. [146 pp.]

Reese, George H., ed. Proceedings of the Virginia State Convention of 1861. 4 vols. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1965.

Rees, James. The Dramatic Authors of America. Philadelphia, 1845.

Rhodes, Elisha H. The Second Rhode Island Volunteers at the Siege of Petersburg. Providence, 1915.

Rice, Philip Morrison. “The Know-Nothing Party in Virginia, 1854–1855.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 55 (January 1947): 61-75.

Richards, R.G. “The Blunder at the Petersburg Mine.” National Tribune (18 June 1925).

Risjord, Norman K. The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965. [The standard history of the Randolph faction. 360 pp. Table of contents, notes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Robert, Joseph Clarke. The Tobacco Kingdom: Plantation, Market, and Factory in Virginia and North Carolina, 1800–1860. Durham: Duke University Press, 1938. Reprint, Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1965.

Roberts, Bruce. Plantation Homes of the James River. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Roberts, W.H. Drums and Guns around Petersburg. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1995. [CW.]

Robertson, David. Debates and Other Proceedings of the Convention of Virginia, 1788. Petersburg, 1788–1789. [Early Nation.]

Robertson, James I., Jr., ed. The Civil War Letters of Robert McAllister. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1965. [CW.]

Robertson, James I., Jr., ed. Proceedings of the Advisory Council of the State of Virginia April 21–June 19, 1861. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1977. [Antebellu; CW.]

Robertson, William G. The Battle of Old Men and Young Boys, June 9 1864. Virginia Civil War Battles and Leaders Series. The Petersburg Campaign. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1989. PUL. [CW.]

Robertson, Wyndham. Pocahontas, Alias Matoaka, and Her Decendants. Richmond, 1887.

Rock, Howard B., Paul Gilje, and Robert Asher, eds. American Artisans: Crafting Social Identity, 1750–1850. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995

Rodick, Burleigh Cushing. Appomattox: The Last Campaign. Gaithersburg, Maryland: Olde Soldier Books. Reprinted 1987.

Roe, Alfred S. The Thirty-Ninth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 1862-1865. Worcester, Massachusetts, 1914.

Roediger, David R. “The Pursuit of Whiteness: Property, Terror, and Expansion, 1790–1860.” Journal of the Early Republic 19 (Winter 1999): 579-600.

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso, 1991.

Roman, Alfred. The Military Operations of General Beauregard. New York, 1884. [CW.]

Rorabaugh, W.J. The Craft Apprentice: From Franklin to the Machine Age in America. New York: Oxfors University Press, 1986.

Rosenblatt, Emil, and Ruth Rosenblatt, eds. Anti-Rebel: The Civil War Letters of Wilbur Fiske. Croton-on-Hudson, New York: published by the editors, 1983. [CW.]

Ross, Fitzgerald. A Visit to the Cities and Camps of the Confederate States. Edinburgh, 1865. [CW.]

Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Royall, Ann. The Black Book. Washington, 1828.

Royall, Ann. Mrs. Royall’s Southern Tour. Washington, 1830.

Ruffin, Edmund. An Essay on Calcareous Manures. Petersburg: J.W. Campbell, 1832. [This first edition of this epochal work was published by Campbell at his bookstore, located where the passageway now runs from the Java Mio Courtyard to Sycamore Street. (“Initiated an era of agricultural reform in the ante-bellum south. By 1850 Edmund Ruffin, seconded by John Taylor of Caroline, had effected a transformation of the economy of the upper South from poverty to agricultural prosperity. . . . This small book, with its uncompromisingly descriptive title, is a landmark in the history of soil chemistry i the United States.”—Harvard University Press) The book also provided strong underpinnings for the defense of slavery as an economic system and for Southern nationalism. New editions were published in 1835, 1842, and 1852; I have not found the date of the third edition. Ruffin seems to have lived in Petersburg, from 1837 in a house still standing on High Street, 1833 to early 1843. RDW]

Ruffin, Edmund. An Essay on Calcareous Manures. Third Edition. Petersburg: Printed for the Author, 1842. [The Preface for this edition is dated December 1842, the month he abandoned publication of his equally epochal journal, the Farmer’s Register, and was preparing to move from Petersburg to South Carolina to take the position of State Agricultural Surveyor. RDW]

Ruffin, Edmund. An Essay on Calcareous Manures. Fifth Edition, Amended and Enlarged. Richmond: J.W. Randolph, 1852. [Available to read online or free download, on]

Ruffin, Edmund. An Essay on Calcareous Manures. Fifth Edition. Ed. by J. Carlisle Sitterson. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1961. Belknap Press. A John Harvard Library Book.

Ruffin, Edmund. Desultory Observations on the Abuses of the Banking System: Addressed to the Consideration of the Agricultural Classes. Petersburg: E. & J.C. Ruffin, 1841. Available online at PUL. [28 pp.]

Russell, John H. “Colored Freemen as Slaveholders in Virginia,” The Journal of Negro History 1 (July 1916): 233-242.

Russell, John H. The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619–1865. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1913. New York, Dove, 1969. Ed. Jack Saltzman, David Lloyd Smith, and Cornel West. New York: Macmillan, 1996. Pp. 1529-1530.

Russell, Thaddeus. “Keckley, Wlizabeth,” In Encyclpedia of African American Culture and History.

Russo, Jean B. “Self-Suffiency and Local Exchange: Free Craftsmen in the Rural Chesapeake Economy.” In Colonial Chesapeake Society. Ed. Lois Green Carr, Philip D. Morgan, and Jean B. Russo. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1988.

Rutberg, Mary. Mary Lincoln’s Dressmaker: Elizabeth Keckley’s Remarkable Rise from Slave to White House Confidante. New York: Walker and Company, 1995. [Excellent bibliography for Keckley. Frances Smith Foster]

Ryan, James H. “Using Pipe Stems to Determine Periods of Occupation and Construction of Historical Sites,” in Proceedings of Historic Petersburg Foundation 1 (August 1994).

Ryan, James H., and Lee A. Wallace, Jr. “Duty and Honor: Petersburg’s Contributions to the War of 1812. Proceedings of The Historic Petersburg Foundation. 2 (March 2004): i-vi; 1-36. [Basically an annotated republication of Wallace’s article. Illustrations, maps, “Epilogue” by Winfield Scott, appendices. RDW]

Ryder, Robin L. , and Philip J. Schwarz. “Archaeological and Historical Investigation of 44pg217, an Early 19th Century Free Black Farmstead Located in Prince George County, Virginia: Phase 3 Data Recovery.” 1990. Report on file at the Virginia Department of Historic Resources.

Salmon, Emily J. and John S., eds. Historic Photos of the Siege of Petersburg. Nashville: Turner Publishing Company, 2007. [Text and extensive captions by the editors.]

Salmon, John S. The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefirld Guide. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Staclpole Books, Sanders, Ephraim D. Sketch of the Life and Character of Thomas Cooke Paul. Philadelphia, 1849.

Sanders, George, Ed. Dear Hattie: The Civil war Letters of Mary Harriet Peek Including Those from Her Brother Henry Thomas Peek of the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Albuquerquw: printed by the editor, 1998. [CW.]

Scarborough, William Kauffman. Masters of the Big House: Elite Slaveholders of the Mid-Nineteenth-Century South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.

Scarborough, William Kauffman, ed. The Diary of Edmund Ruffin. 3 vols. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972–1989. [Antebellum; CW.]

Schaff, Morris. The Sunset of the Confederacy. Boston: John W. Luce and Company, 1912.

Schiller, Herbert M.., ed. A Captain’s War: The Letters and Diaries of William H.S. Burgwyn. Shippensburg, Pennsylvania: White Mane Publising, 1994. [CW.] Schoepf, Johann David. Travels in the Confederation. (1783–1784). New York: Burt Franklin. Philadelphia, 1911. {Early Nation.] Scott, Robert Garth, ed. Forgotten Valor: The Memoirs, Journals, and Civil War Letters of Orlando B. Willcox. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1999. [CW.]

Schwarz, Philip J. “Emancipators, Protectors, and Anomalies: Free Black Slaveowners in Virginia.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 95 (1987): 317-338.

Schwarz, Philip J. “The Transportation of Slaves from Virginia, 1801–1865,” Slavery and Abolition, Vol. 7, No. 3 (December 1986): 215-240.

Schwarz, Philip J. Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705–1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988. [Table of contents, tables, footnotes, Appendix: “Slaves Hanged or Transported for Conspiracy and Insurrection, 1785–1831,” index. RDW]

Schweninger. Loren. “The Roots of Enterprise: Black-Owned Businesses in Virginia, 1830–1880.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 100 (October 1992): 515-542.

Scott, James G., and Edward A. Wyatt, IV. Petersburg’s Story: A History. Petersburg: Titmus Optical Company, 1960. Printed by Whittet & Shepperson, Richmond. [Reprinted by Dietz Press.] [Essential. Skimpy and frequently inaccurate for the 17th and 18th centuries, to the Revolution. Much better for the 19th century through the Civil War. Gives very little attention to the period of Reconstruction and Readjustment. Chooses to tell the story of the 95 years between the Civil War and 1960 in the manner of a Chamber of Commerce publication, focusing on schools, churches, industry, culture, transportation, and growth. Chapters on the Spanish-American War and the First and Second World wars. Nothing on civil rights, two paragraphs on Peabody, five paragraphs on what is now Virginia State University, but very little on African-Americans in general. Part I: “The Making of the City,” by Edward A.Wyatt; IV. Part II. “Confederate Citadel,” by Edward A. Wyatt, IV. Part III: “Years of Change . . . 1865–1960,” by James G. Scott. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, no notes, bibliography, index.] RDW Scott, William R., and William G. Slade, eds. Upon These Shores: Themes in the African-American Experience 1600 to Present. New York: Routledge, 2000. Scott, Winfield. Memoirs of Lieut.-General Scott. New York, 1864. Sears, Stephen W., ed. For Country, Cause and Leader: The Civil War Journal of Charles B. Haydon. New Yotk: Ticknor and Fields, 1993. [CW.] Sears, Stephen W., ed. The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1989. [CW.] Selby, John E. The Revolution in Virginia, 1775–1783. Williamsburg: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1988. [Much material relating to Petersburg. Table of contents, maps, endnotes, bibliographic essay, index, RDW.]

Sellers, Charles. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America,1815–1846. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Shade, William G. Democratizing the Old Dominion: Virginia and the Second Party System, 1824–1861. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Shade, William G.Society and Politics in Antebellum Virginia’s Southside.” Journal of Southern History 53 (1987): 163-193.

Shaver, Lewellyn A. A History of the Sixtieth Alabama Regiment, Gracie’s Alabama Brigade. Montgomery, Alabama, 1867.

Shaw, John. A Ramble through the United States, Canada, and the West Indies. London, 1856.

Shearman, Sumner U. Battle of the Crater and Experiences of Prison Life. Providence, 1898.

Shepard, E. Lee, F.S. Pollard, and Janet B. Schwarz. “’The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here:’ Virginians and the Colonization of Liberia,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 102, No. 1 (January 1994): 89-100.

Shepherd, Samuel, ed. The Statutes at Large of Virginia . . . Being a Continuation of Hening. Richmond, 1835–1836.

Sheridan, Philip H. Personal Memoirs of P.H. Sheridan. New York: Charles L. Webster and Company, 1888.

Sherwood, William Henry. The Life of Charles B.W. Gordon, Pastor of The First Baptist Church, Petersburg, Virginia, and History of the Church from 1756 to 1885. Petersburg, Va.: J. B. Ege, 1885. Rare. VSU. [History of the church.]

Shirley, Michael. From Congregational Town to Industrial City: Culture and Social Change in a Southern Community. New York: New York University Press, 1994.

Shore, Thomas. The Merchant’s and Traveller’s Companion. Petersburg: Thomas Shore, Postmaster, Petersburg, 1819. Printed by the Petersburg Republican Press, E. Pescud. Duke. Also available online or on microfilm at PUL. [258 pp., tables, fold-out map. Duke]

Sidbury, James. Ploughshares into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel’s Virginia, 1730–1810. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Siegel, Frederick F. The Roots of Southern Distinctiveness: Tobacco and Society in Danville, Virginia, 1780–1865. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

Silver, James W., ed. A Life for the Confederacy as Recorded in the Pocket Diaries of Pvt. Robert A. Moore. Jackson, Tennessee: McCowat-Mercer Press, 1959. [CW.]

Simcoe, John Graves. Military Journal, A History of the Operations of a Partisan Corps. New York, 1844. [Rev. War.]

Simon, John Y., ed. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. 28 vols. to date. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967–. [CW.]

Skeel, Emily Ellsworth Ford, ed. Notes on the Life of Noah Webster. New York, 1912. [Early Nation.] Skinner, J. Hilary. After the Storm. London, 1866.

Slaughter, Philip. A History of Bristol Parish, Virginia. Second edition. Richmond, 1879.

Slaughter, Philip. The Virginian History of African Colonization. Richmond, 1855.

Sloan, John A. Reminiscences of the Guilford Grays, Co. B, Twenty-seventh N.C. Regiment. Washington: R.O. Polkinhorn, 1883. [CW.]

Small, Major Abner R. The Road to Richmond. Berkeley, 1939.

Smith, Edward D. “Climbing Jacob’s Ladder.” Smithsonian Institution, 1988. [An exhibit book on black churches, including some of Petersburg’s churches.]

Smith, Gustavus W. Confederate War Papers. New York: Atlantic Publishing Co., 1884. [CW.]

Smith, James Wesley. “The Role of Blacks in Petersburg’s Carrying Trade and Service-Oriented Industry, 1800–1865.” Virginia Geographer: The Journal of the Virginia Geographic Society 16 (1984): 15-22. Special Petersburg Edition. Rare. VSU.

Smith, James W., Martha S. Dance, and the L.R. Valentine Youth Group. The History and Legend of Pocahontas Island. Petersburg: Plummer Printing Company, 1981. VSU and PPL.

Smith, William Farrar. From Chattanooga to Petersburg. Cambridge, 1893.

Smyth, J.F.D. A Tour of the United States. London, 1784.

Sobel, Mechal. The World They Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987. First Princeton Paperback printing, 1989.

Sobel, Mechal. Trabelin’ On: The Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith. Princeton:Princeton Univeristy Press, 1988. First published, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979. Contributions to African-American and African Studies, N. 36. This 1988 Princeton edition omits Appendices I-III of the original edition.

Sommers, Richard. Richmond Redeemed: The Siege at Petersburg. Garden City: Doubleday and Co., 1981.

Sorrel, G. Moxley. Reminiscences of a Confederate Sraff Officer. New York, 1905.

Spear, Jamin A. “Fighting Them Over.” National Tribune (20 June 1889).

Spooner, John Jones. “A Topographical Description of the County of Prince George, Virginia, in 1793.” Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1794).

Squier, Louise Smith. Sketches of Southern Scenes. New York, 1885.

Squires, .H.T. Land of Decision. Portsmouth, 1931.

Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Antebellum South. New York: Vintage, 1956.

Starobin, Robert S. Industrial Slavery in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Sreffen, Charles G. “Changes in the Organization of Artisan Production in Baltimore, 1790–1820.” William and Mary Quarterly 36 (3ed ser. 1979): 101-117. [By the end of this period Baltimore was exercising a great deal of influence on the culture of Richmond and Petersburg. RDW]

Steffen, Charles G. The Mechanics of Baltimore: Workers and Politics in the Age of Revolution, 1763–1812. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

Stern, Philip Van Doren. An End to Valor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958.

Stevens, Hazard. The Storming of the Lines of Petersburg by the Sixth Corps, April 2, 1865. Providence, 1904. [CW.]

Stevens, Michael E., ed. As if It Were Glory: Robert Beecham’s Civil War from the Iron Brigade to the Black Regiments. Madison, Wisconsin: Madison House, 1998. [CW; AA.]

Stewart, William H. A Pair of Blankets. New York, 1911.

Stewart, William H. “Field of Blood That Was the Crater.” Southern Historical Society Papers 33. [CW.]

Stewart, William H. “The Charge of the Crater.” Southern Historican Society Papers 25. [CW.]

Stiles, Robert. Four Years Under Marse Robert. Washington, 1903. New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1904. Dayton, Ohio: The Press of the Morningside Bookshop, 1977. Introduction by Robert K. Krick. [CW.]


tith, Lee. Watch Ov’em Gene. Ed. and co-author, Akin Smith. Petersburg: SolomonBooks, 2005. [Historical novel dealing with happenings in and around the Halifax Triangle in Petersburg, in the 1950s and 1960s. Both of the authors live in Petersburg.]

Stocker, Jeffrey D., ed. From Huntsville to Appomattox. R.T. Coles’s History of Fourth Regiment, Alabama Volunteer Infantry, C.S.A., Army of Northern Virginia. Knoxville; University of Tennessee Press, 1996. [CW.]

Stokes, Melvin, and Stephen Conway, eds. The Market Revolution in America: Social, Political, and Religious Expressions, 1800–1880. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Stribling, Robert M. Gettysburg Campaign and Campaigns of 1864 and 1865. Petersburg, 1905. [CW.]

Striplin, E.F. Pat. The Norfolk and Western: A History. Roanoke, Virginia: The Norfolk and Western Railway Company, 1981.

Stuart, James. Three Years in North America. Edinburgh, 1833. Suit, Pleasant. The Farmer’s Accountant and, Instructions for Overseers: To Which Is Added, The Mode of Calculating Interest on Bonds, Making Up Executors’, Administrators’ and Guardians’ Accounts, According to the Rules of the Superior Court of Chancery, Founded on the Decision of the Court of Appeals. Richmond, J. Macfarlan, 1828. [The title page appears to say, “Pleasant Suit of Petersburg, Virginia, and, indeed, a Pleasant Suit lived in Petersburg at the time of publication. Macfarlan was the printer; the book was probably published for a bookshop or bookshops. RDW] Sutton, William R. Journeymen for Jesus: Evangelical Artisans Confront Capitalism in Jacksonian Baltimore. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Swem, E.G. Virginia Historical Index. Roanoke, Virginia: Stone Printing and Manufacturing Company, 1936. [Researchers interested in African-American history should first look under “Negro” and “Slave” for most of the entries.] Swinton, William. Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. New York, 1882. Sydnor, Charles S. Gentlemen Freeholders: Political Practices in Washington’s Virginia. Chapel Hill: Univrsoty of North Carolina Press, 1952. Sydnor, Charles S. The Development of Southern Sectionalism, 1819–1848. 1948. Reprint, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Tadman, Michael. Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Takagi, Midori. “Rearing Wolves to Our Own Destruction”: Slavery in Richmond, Virginia, 1782–1865. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999.

Takaki, Ronald. Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford Unversity Press, 2000.

Tang, Joyce. “Enslaved African Rebellions in Virginia,” Journal of Black Studies (May 1997): 598-614.

Tarleton, Lieut.Col. A History of the Campaign of 1780 and 1781. Dublin, 1787.

Tate,Adam L. “Republicanism and Society: John Randolph of Roanoke, Joseph Glover Baldwin, and the Quest for Social Order.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 111 (2003): 263-298.

Taylor, Alrutheus Ambush. The Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia. Washington, D.C.: The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1926.

Taylor, George Rogers. The Transportation Revolution, 1815–1860. New York: Harper & Row, 1951.

Taylor, John. Arator, Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical & Political: In Sixty Four Numbers. 4th ed., rev. and enl. Petersburg: Printed by Whitworth & Yancey for John M. Carter, 1818, Available online and on microform at PUL. [239 pp.]

Taylor, John. Arator, Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical & Political: In Sixty Four Numbers. 5th ed., rev. and enl. Petersburg: Printed by Whitworth & Yancey for John M. Carter, 1818, Available online and on microform at PUL. [239 pp.]

Taylor, John. Arator, Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical & Political: In Sixty Four Numbers. 6th ed., rev. and enl. Petersburg: Printed by Whitworth & Yancey for John M. Carter, 1818, Available online and on microform at PUL. [239 pp.]

Taylor, Porcher, Jr. Damn the Alligators—Full Speed Ahead!: The Autobiography of Porcher Taylor, Jr. Ed. Linda Louise Riley and Thomas Louis Spencer. Petersburg: self-published, 2004.

Taylor, Richard. Destruction and Reconstruction. New York, 1879.

Taylor, Walter H. Four Years with Gemeral Lee: Being a Summary of the More Important Events Touching the Career of General Robert E. Lee, in the War between the States, Together with Authritative Statement of the Strength of the Army Which He Commanded in the Field. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1878. Available for reading on Google Books.

Taylor, Walter H. Four Years with General Lee. Ed., with a New Introduction, by James I. Robertson, Jr. Bloomimgto: Indiana Univerity Press, 1996. Originally published 1962.

Taylor, Walter H. General Lee: His Campaigns in Virginia, 1861–1865. Introduction by Gary W. Gallagher. Bison Books. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. Originally published, 1906.

Theoharis, Jeanne, and Komozi Woodard, eds. Groundwork: Local Black Freedom Movements in America. New York: New York University Press, 2005. Forewoed by Charles Payne. Introduction by Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard. [Appears not to mention Petersburg, but provides a good framework. RDW]

Thernstrom, Stephen. Poverty and Progress: Social Mobility in a Nineteenth Century City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Thomas, Samuel N., Jr., and Jason H. Silveman, eds. “A Rising Star of Promise”: The Civil War Odyssey of David Jackson Logan. Campbell, California: Savas Publishing, 1998. [CW.]

Tingling, Marion, ed. The Correspondence of the Three WIlliam Byrds of Westover, Virginia 1684–1776. With a Forewood by Louis Wright. 2 vols. Virginia Historical Documents Volume 13. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia for the Virginia Historical Society, 1977.

Thomson, John. The Letters of Curtius. Richmond, 1803. [Thomson was a High Street neighbor of the young Quaker, Edward Srabler (of the Stabler-Ledbetter Apothecary in Alexandria, and friend of Emerson), and a close boyhood friend of John Randolph and Richard Randolph of Matoax—they called each other “Citizen Randolph” and “Citizen Thomson.” He went on to skyrockeet to fame as a political essayist, before his very early death. RDW]

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. First edition published 1992.

Thrift, Minton. Memoir of the Reverend Jesse Lee. New York, 1823. [Thrift was a Methodist minister who lived many years in Petersburg, at the souteast corner of Sycamore and Franklin. Lee, also from the Petersburg area, was a leading Methodist minister and historian of Methodism in Virginia. RDW]

Tise, Larry E. Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America, 1701–1840. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987.

Toppin, Edgar Allen. “The Role of Free African American Citizens in Colonial Times.” A paper delivered at the Historic Petersburg Foundation symposium, 4 June 1994.

Tower, Charlemagne. The Marquis de La Fayette in the American Revolution. Philadelphia, 1895.

Tower, R. Lockwood, and John S. Belmont, eds. Lee’s Adjutant: The Wartime Letters of Colonel Walter Herron Taylor, 1862–1865. Columbia: Univerity of South Carolina Press. 1995. [CW.]

Towers, Frank. The Urban South and the Coming of the Civil War. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2004.

Townes, J.D, and Webb. “Petersburg, July 31, 1820: Permit us to inform you, that we have formed a connection in business under the firm of J.D Townes & Webb, in general commission & auction lines, as heretofore conducted by J.D Townes, to whom a residence of 12 years has given an intimate acquaintance, with the productions of this and the adjoining state, viz: tobacco, cotton, flour, wheat and Indian corn . . .” Petersburg: s.n., 1820. 2 leaves/broadside. Available online at PUL.

Townsend, George Alfred. Rustics in Rebellion: A Yankee Reporter on the Road to Richmond, 1861–1865. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1950. [CW.]

Townshend, F. French. Ten Thousand Miles of Travel, Sport, and Adventure. London, 1869.

Tribble, Byrd Barnette. Benjamin Cason Rawlings: First Virginia Volunteer for the South. Baltimore: Butternut and Blue, 1996. [CW.]

Tribou, Charles E. “At the Crater.” National Tribune (29 June 1911).

Trout, William E. III, ed. Appomattox River Seay Stories: Reminiscences of James Washington Seay, The Last of the Appomattox Batteaumen. With the Assistance of R. Dulaney Ward, Jr. Petersburg: Historic Petersburg Foundation and Virginia Canals and Navigations Socirty, 1992. [Transcriptions of recorded interviews with Jim Seay. Some sections, deemed embarrassing, have been left out, but should be preserved in a archive. Table of contents, maps, illustrations, no notes, “A Tour Guide to Petersburg’s Canal,” bibliography, index. RDW]

Trout, William E., III. The Falls of the Appomattox Atlas: Cultural Resource and Planning Maps for the Appomatox Scenic River. [Petersburg:] Virginia Canals and Navigations Society, 1996. Co-sponsored by the Hitoric Petersburg Foundation, Inc. [Invaluable in many ways. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, index. RDW] Trowbridge, John T. The South: A Tour of Its Battle-Fields and Ruined Cities. Hartford, 1866. [CW; Postbellum.] Trowbridge, John T. The Desolate South, 1865-1866: A Picture of the Battlefields and of the Devastated Confederacy. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1956. [CW; Postbellum.]

Trudeau, Noah Andre. Bloody Roads South: The Wilderness to Cold Harbor, May–June 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000. [368 pp.]

Trudeau, Noah Andre. Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War, 1862–1865. Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 1998.

Trudeau, Noah Andre. Out of the Storm: The End of the Civil War, April–June 1865. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991.

Trudeau, Noah Andre. The Last Citadel: Petersburg, Virginia June 1864–April 1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991. [The only full-length treatment. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, end notes, bibliography, index. RDW]

Trudeau, Noah. The Siege of Petersburg. National Park Service Civil War Series. Eastern National, 1995.

Trulock, Alice Rains. In the Hands of Providence: Joshua L. Chamberlain and the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York, 1928.

Turner, George Edgar. Victory Rode the Rails. New York, 1953.

Turner, John R. The Battle of the Wilderness!: The Part Taken by Mahone’s Brigade: An Address Delivered by John R. Turner before the A.P. Hill Camp of Confederate Veterans of Petersburg, Va., on the Evening of March 3rd, 1892. Petersburg: Fenn & Owen, Printers and Binders, 1892. [19 pp.]

Turner, Justin G., amd Linda Levitt Turner. Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters. New York: Afred A. Knopf, 1972. [Elizabeth Keckley, and of course Mrs. Lincoln visited the Petersburg area twice while Lincoln was here. RDW]

Tyler-MacGraw, Marie. An African Republic: Black and White Virginians and the Making of Liberia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

United States of America. An Act to Designate the Facility of the United States Postal Service at 3131 South Crater Road in Petersburg, Virginia, as the “Norman Sisisky Post Office Building.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O, 2002. Available online and as a PDF at Duke.

Valade, Roger M., III, ed. “Elizabeth Keckley.” In The Schomberg Center Guide to Black Literature from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Detroit: Gade Researach, 1996. P. 243.

Vandiver, Frank E. Ploughshares into Swords. Austin, 1952.

Vandiver, Frank E., ed. The Civil War Diary of General Josiah Gorgas. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1947. [CW.]

Van Zandt, A[braham] B[rooks]. The Elect Lady: A Memoir of Mrs. Susan Catharine Bott, of Petersburg, Va. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Publication, 1857. [Prior to her marriage with Dr. John Bott, Susan Catharine Spotswood had been the flame of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, who taught her to draw and paint, and prepared for her a hand-sewn instruction booklet in drawing and painting, which still exists. The Botts lived on High Street, where the High Street Inn now stands. Mrs. Bott, a passionate gardener, made it a famous garden spot. Dr. Bott, however, ran the family into debt and then died. He had taken on the trusteeship of the considerable estate of a mulatto woman, Mary Ann [Stewart] Vizonneau, who had married André Thomas Vizonneau, the son of a refugee from Saint Domingue, against her father’s wishes. Her father, a wealthy merchant, nevertheless left her his house and all his money in the bank when he died in 1813. This emboldened Mary Ann to obtain a legal separation from Vizonneau, to place her estate in the hands of a trustee, Dr. Bott, and to move to New York. Dr. Bott, however, mismanaged the estate, and lost most of it—replacing two thirds of it only by impoverishing himself and his wife, and then died. Before she returned to New York, Mary Ann deeded her house on Market Street to the now impoverished Mrs. Bott, who turned passionately to good works, participating in many organized efforts to help others, throughout the remainder of her life. RDW]

Venable, Charles S. The Campaign from the Wilderness to Petersburg: Address . . . before the Virginia Division of the Army of Morthern Virginia, at Their Annual Meeting, Held in the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond, Va., Thursday Evening, October 30th, 1873. Richmond: G.W. Gary, printer, 1879. PUL. [20 pp.]

Venable, M.W. “In the trenches at Petersburg.” Confederate Veteran (1926).

Wade, Richard C. Slavery in the Cities: The South 1820–1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Wadsworth, William, compiler. The Murderer’s Cave, or, The Punishment of Wickedness: Exemplified by the History of Jane Jenkins, a Notorious Robber and Murderer Who Lived for Five Years in a Cave in One of the forests of Virginia . . . . Carefully Compiled from an Authentic Source by Wm. Wadsworth. Boston: Printed by N. Covery, 1818. Available online at PUL. [24 pp.]

Wagstaff, H.M., ed. The James A. Graham Papers, 1861–1884. Chapel Hill, 1929.

Walcott, Charles F. History of the Twenty-First Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers in the War for the Preservation of the Union, 1861–1865 With Statistics of the War and Rebel Prisons. Boston, 1904.

Waldstreicher, David. In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776–1820. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1997.

Wallace, Lee A., Jr. A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations, 1861–1865. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1986. [CW.]

Wallace, Lee A., Jr., and Martin R. Conway. A History of the Petersburg National Battlefield. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, 1983. Ward, Harry M., and Harold E. Greer, Jr. Richmond during the Revolution 1775–1783.

Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia for the Richmond Independence Commission, 1977.

Ward, R. Dulaney, Jr. Partnerships for the New Century. Recommendations Forwarded by the City of Petersburg for the General Management Plan of the Petersburg National Battlefield. July 10, 2001. Map by Landon Wellford.

Warden, D.B. A Statistical, Political, and Historical Account of the United States of North America. Edinburgh, 1819.

Waselkov, Gregory A., Peter H. Wood, and M. Thomas Hatley. eds. Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.

Washington, John E. “Elizabeth Keckley.” They Knew Lincoln. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1942. Pp. 205-244. [Excellent bibliography for Keckley. Frances Smith Foster]

Watkins, Lizzie Stringfellow. The Life of Horace Stringfellow. Montgomery, 1931.

Watkinson, James D. “Reluctant Scholars: Apprentices and the Petersburg (Virginia) Benevolent Mechanics’ Association School.” History of Education Quarterly 36 (1996): 429-448.

Waugh, John C. Surviving the Confederacy: Rebellion, Ruin, and Recovery—Roger and Sara Pryor During the Civil War. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2002.

Way, D.S. “The Battle of the Crater.” National Tribune (4 June 1903).

Weaver, Betti, ed. Chesterfield County, Virginia: A History. Richmond, 1954.

Weaver, C.E. Story of Petersburg, Virginia, U.S.A. Petersburg, 1914. [Chamber-type publication with many illustrations, brief histories of local business firms.]

Wefer, Marion. “Another Assassination, Another Widow, Another Embattled Book.” American Heritage 18 (August 1967): 79-88.

Weisiger, Benjamin B., compiler. Prince George County, Virginia: Records, 1733–1792. Richmond: Weisiger, 1939.

Welch, Spencer Glasgow. A Confederate Surgeon’s Letters to His Wife. New York: Neale Publishing, 1911. [CW.]

Welcher, Frank J. The Union Army, 1861–1865: Organization and Operations. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989–1993. [CW.]

Weld, Isaac, Jr. Travels through the States of North America. London, 1800. [Early Nation.]

Wells, Jonathan Daniel. The Origins of the Southern Middle Class, 1800–1861. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Wenger, Mark. “The Central Passage in Virginia: Evolution of an Eighteenth Century Living Space.” Camille Weels, ed. Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 2 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1986): 137-149.

Wensyel, James W. Petersburg: Out of the Trenches.Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, 1998. [A treatment of the last battles of the Petersburg campaign, from 25 Match until 3 April 1865. Table of contents, illuseations, maps, no notes, selected bibliography, no index. RDW]

Wiatt, Alex L., ed. Confederate Chaplain William Edward Wiatt: An Annotated Diary. Lynchburg, Virginia: H.E. Howard, 1994. [CW.]

Wiggins, Sarah Woolfolk, ed. The Journals of Josiah Gorgas, 1857–1878. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995. [CW.]

Wiley, Kenneth, ed. Norfolk Blues: The Civil War Diary of the Norfolk Light Infantry Blues. By John Walters. Shippensburg, Pennsylvania: Bued Street Press, 1997. [CW.]

Williams, Edward B., ed. Rebel Brothers: The Civil War Letters of the Truehearts. College Station: Texas A and M University Press, 1995. [CW.]

Williams, T. Harry. P.G.T. Beauregard, Napoleon in Gray. Baton Rouge, 1955. Williamson, J. Pinckney. Ye Olden Times, History of Petersburg. Petersburg, 1906. Willoughby, Laura E. Petersburg. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing, 2006. Postcard History Series.

Wilson, Calvin D. “Negroes Who Owned Slaves,” Popular Science Monthly 80 (November 1912): 483-494.

Winik, Jay. April 1865: The Month That Saved America. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2001. [Highly acclaimed, very important book for understanding the broader context of what was going on in Petersburg during the course of that month, though not as much as one would hope and expect on the Petersburg scenario. Table of contents, illustrations, maps, endnotes, no biliography, index. RDW]

Winterbotham, W. An Historical, Geographical, Commercial, and Philosophical View of the United States of America. New York, 1796.

Wise, Barton H. The Life of Henry A. Wise of Virginia. New York, 1899.

Wise, George. Campaigns and Battles of the Army of Northern Virginia. New York, n.d.

Wise, Jennings C. “The Boy Gunners of Lee.” Southern Historical Soicety Papers 42.

Wise, John S. The End of an Era. Boston, 1899.

Witkovski, J. Mark, and Theodore R. Reinhart, eds. Paleoindian Research in Virginia: A Synthesis. Second Edition. Special Publication No. 19 of the Archeological Society of Virginia, 1994. Council of Virginia Archeologists. First edition published 1989.

Wood, Peter H. “Africans in EIghteenth-Century North America,” in Upon These Shores: Themes in the African-American Experience 1600 to Present, ed. William R. Scott and William G, Slade. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion. Norton Library. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1996. First published, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1974. First published in Norton paperback, 1975; reissued, 1996. Wood, Peter H. Weathering the Storm: Inside Winslow Homer’s Gulf Stream. Mercer University Lamar Lectures. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004.

Wood, Peter H. “Introduction” to Part One, “Geography and Population.” Gregory A.Waselkov, Peter H. Wood, and M. Thomas Hatley, eds. Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast. Pp.19-26. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.

Wood, Peter H. Strange New Land: Africans in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. First puclished as Strange New Land: African Americans 1617-1776. The Young Oxford History of African Americans, Vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Wood, Peter H. “The Changing Population of the Colonial South: An Overview by Race and Region, 1685-1790.” Gregory A.Waselkov, Peter H. Wood, and M. Thomas Hatley. eds. Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial South east. Pp. 57-132. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.

Wood, Peter H., and Karen C.C. Dalton. Winslow Homer’s Images of Blacks: The Civil War and Reconstruction Years. Menil Collection. Austin; University of Texas Press, 1990. First published, The Menil Foundation, 1989.

Woodson, Carter G. Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1924.


Project Administration. Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion. American Guide Series. New York: Oxford Press, 1940.

Wright, Donald. The World and a Very Small Place in Africa. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Wright, Stuart T., ed. Memoirs of Alfred Horatio Belo: Reminiscences of a North Carolina Volunteer. Gaithersburg, Maryland: Olde Soldier Books, n.d.

Wright, Stuart T., ed. The Confederate Letters of Benjamin H. Freeman. Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press, 1974.

WRS. “The Sharpshooters of Mahone’s Old Brigade at the Crater.” Southern Historical Society Papers 38.

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. Along Petersburg Streets: Historic Sites and Buildings of Petersburg, Virginia. Richmond, Dietz Printing Company, 1943. PUL. [95 pp.]

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. Charles Campbell, Virginia’s “Old Mortality.” Southern Sketches, No. 5. Charlottesville, 1938


Wyatt, Edward A., IV. “Dr. James Greenway, and A Note on General Winfield Scott,” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 17 (April 1936).

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. “George Keith Taylor, 1769–1815, Virginia Federalsist and Humanitarian,” William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Second Series, 16 (January 1936).

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. John Daly Burk, Patriot-Playwright-Historian. Southern Sketches, No. 7. Charlottesville, 1936.

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. “Newmarket of the Virginia Turf,” William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Second Series, 17 (October 1937).

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. Plantation Houses Around Petersburg in the Counties of Prince George, Chesterfield, and Dinwiddie, Virginia. Petersburg: Reprinted from the Progress-Index, 1949.

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. ed. Preliminary Checklist for Petersburg, 1786–1876. Virginia Imprints Series. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1949. PPL. [Checklist of Petersburg printers and their publications, including especially newspapers. Invaluable. RDW]

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. “Rise of Industry in Ante-Bellum Petersburg.” William and Mary Quarterly, 17 (2nd ser. January 1937): 1-36.

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. “Schools ans Libraries in Petersburg, Virginia, Prior to 1860,” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 19 (October 1937).

Wyatt, Edward A., IV. “Three Petersburg Theatres,” William and Mary College Quarterly Histoprical Magazine, 21 (April 1941). Wyatt-Brown-Brown, Bertram. Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. Wyllie, John Cook, ed. “Obsrvations Made During a Short Residence un Virginia.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 76 (1968). [Visit to Petersburg in 1814.]

Younger, Edward, ed. Inside the Confederate Government, The Diary of Robert Garlick Hill Kean. New York, 1957.


Booth, Albert Nathaniel. “Slave Hiring

_____. “Last Night but one of Mr. & Mrs. Bartley’s Appearnce . . . : On Friday Evening May 21st, 1819 will Be Presented Murphey’s [SIC] tragedy of a Grecian daughter . . . To Which Will Be Added a Petit Comedy Called Three Weeks after Marriage.” [Petersburg]: Whitworth & Yancey, [1819]. Broadside. Available on microform at PUL.

_____. “Theatre. Last Nigh t But One. Of Mr. & Mrs. Bartley’s Appearance. The Ladies and Gentlemen of Petersburg, Are Respectfully Informed That after This Week, the Theatre Will Be Closed for a Short Period—Until the Company Returns from Richmond: For the Benefit of Mrs. Bartley On Friday Evening, May 21st, 1819, Will Be Presented, Murphey’s [SIC] tragedy of a Grecian Daughter. . . . : To which will be added, a Petit comedy Called Three Weeks after Marriage.” [Petersburg]: Whitworth & Yancey—Intelligencer Press, 1819. Broadside. Available online and on microform at PUL.

_____. “To the General Assembly of Virginia: The Petition of the Undersigneed Citizens of the Counties on the River Appomattox and Its Waters Respectfully Sheweth.” [Petersburg]: s.n., 1818? Petition. Availablr online and on microform at PUL.

Carwile, Kay Hawkins. “Blandford Cemetery, Petersburg, Virginia: A Walking Tour.” Petersburg: The Historic Blandford Cemetery Foundation, Inc., 1993. Printed by Plummer Printing Company. [Available for purchase at the Blandford Interpretation Center. The tour takes in fifty sites, mostly graves or mausoleums. 20 pages. Table of contents. RDW]


Adams family papers, 1792-1862. 41 items. VHS. [“Concerns Adams and related Withers family members of the Petersburg area. Section 4 includes an account dated 23 February 1860 of John Thomas, with Ursila Ruffin for boarding and nursing services in 1859. Also, contains an 1801 inventory and appraisal of the estate of Baldwin Pearce, including a listing of 14 male and female slaves.” VHS-AA]

Albright, James W., Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Alexander, William D., Diary and Papers. UNC/CH, [CW.]

Allen Family Papers. VHS.

Ambler Family (of Jamestown, Richmond, Williamsburg, and Amherst County), papers, 1638-1910. 142 items. VHS. [“Collection includes a deed, 13 February 1744/45, of William Broadnax of Prince George County to Christopher Perkins of James City County for the slave Willam Liverpool.” VHS-AA]

American Colonization Society, Virginia Branch, records, 1823-1859. 2 vols. VHS. [“A minute book covers the period 1823-1859. (The Society became independent from the national organization in 1828 and thereafter was known as the Virginia Colonization Society.) The book includes information on the debate over sending freed slaves to Haiti or to West Africa, philosophy and benefits of emigration, the social status of free blacks, farming, health and education in the new colony of Liberia, establishment of the Liberian government and military organization, slave trade, abolitionists, costs of emigration, special requests for sermons in support of colonization, and the social and political necessity of colonization. An account book records donations and subscriptions of both private individuals and churches, slaries and travel expenses for the society’s sgents and delegates, publication costs, and general emigration expenses.” VHS-AA]

American Colonization Society, Virginia Branch, list, 1831. 1 p. VHS.

[“List of emigrants, formerly the property of Thomas Pretlow of Southhampton County, bound for Liberia.” VHS-AA] [The Pretlows owned property in Petersburg a decade or two earlier; some of these emigrants may have lived in Petersburg.]

American Loyalists Collection, 17701–1790. 18 linear feet (74 vol. 36 cm.), 25 microfilm reels. Finding aid available at repository. New York Public Library. [“Collection consists of transcripts and digests from the Audit Office records in the Public Record Office in London and from the Royal Institution of Great Britain of the books and papers of the Commission of Enquiry into the losses and services of American loyalists between 1783 and 1790. Volumes contain information conveyed to the commissioners to prevent imposition and fraud; examinations and decisions on temporary support claims; calendars of original memorials, vouchers, etc.; and minutes of the commissioners in London and in Nova Scotia. Also, the Commission’s reports; claims liquidated; acts of Parliament establishing and regulating the Commission; examinations and determinations of claimants in Nova Scotia and London; and Royal Institution transcripts of memorials, correspondence, accounts, returns, paylists, etc., 1778-1783. The transcripts were made between 1898 and 1903 for the New York Public Library.” New york Public Library] [There are Petersburg entries, including African Americans. I be;ieve that the Library of Virginia has the microfilm. RDW]

Anderson, Archer (1838-1928), papers, 1852-1911. 51 items. VHS. [“Papers of a Richmond businessman primarily concerning Virginia and national Democratic party politics and race relations. Section three contains materials compiled by Anderson concerning incidents of racial volence throughout Virginia during the state election campaign of 1883 and charges of voter intimidation by General William Mahone. Correspondence of Anderson, George Douglas Wise, and William Washington Hill Christian include letters of William F. Drinkard (enclosing a printed letter of Isaac Hill Christian concerning an incident at Charles City Court House), Charles Triplett O’Ferrall (concerning the shooting of a black man in Staunton), and Joseph Stebbins (enclosing a broadside ‘To the People of Halifax [County]’). Some of these letters, along with speeches and notes of Anderson, also contain references to riots in Danville and South Boston.” VHS-AA]

Andrews, Charles Wesley (1807-18750, correspondence, 1847-1855. 9 items. VHS. [“Letters from Daniel Nelson, John Page, Robert M. Page, Solomon S. Page, and Peggue Potter, former slaves colonizing Liberia. Primary topics are health, education, and religion of the colonists; farming and blacksmithing; and trade, local government, the military, and politics. The colonists send specific requests for tools, building supplies, dry goods, and information about personal birtdates. The full text of the nine letters has been printed in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 59 (1951): 72-88.” VHS-AA]

Andrews, William B.G., Papers, 1862–1870. [bulk 1863–1865]. 27 items. Duke. [“Confederate soldier, from Pittsylvania County, Va. Personal letters from a Confederate soldier to his father, Thomas A. Andrews. Topics include the death of a female slave, religion and preaching, commodity prices in Virginia, and the progress of the war, including casualties, sickness and prisoners; the sieges of Suffolk (1863) and Petersburg (1865); and the battles of Nashville (1864), Gordonsville (1864), and Sayler’s Creek (1865); the Confederate government; conscription and the election of officers in the 10th Battalion of Virginia Heavy Artillery; Confederate and Union generals; and rumors about the Confederate peace commissioners and Lee’s call for the use of Negro troops.” Duke]

Anonymous, Petersburg Blacksmith’s Ledger, 1855-1857. 1 vol. Duke. [“Ledger of an unidentified blacksmith in Petersburg, Va. The volume records names, dates, and services performed, as well as the cost of those services and the method by which the account was settled. Formerly known as Anonymous ledger, 1855-1857.” Duke]

Archer, Fletcher H., Diary. ?

Archer, Fletcher, Letters. Centre Hill Museum House, Petersburg Museums.

Bagby, George William (1828-1883), papers, 1828-1917. 1,648 items. VHS. [“This collection includes business accounts for several newspapers with which Bagby, a Richmond resident, was affiliated, as well as notes and correspondence compiled in gathering materials for his writings and lectures. He produced popular material on antebellum social life. Of special interest are Bagby’s research notes on The Old Virginia Negro. Section 1 includes a response from William Roane Aylett for information. It discusses Aylett’s views of African Americans in general, as well as offering anecdotes concerning alcohol, childbirth, religion, and conjuring. Notes for Bagby’s speech, The Old Virginia Negro, and a scrapbook of newspaper clippings concerning African Americans, the Central Lunatic Asylum, a contemporary list of African American associations in Richmond, mortality rates, religion, anecdotes of life in antebellum Virginia, and a summary of hypotheseson the furure of African Americans in the South make up section 15. A broadside advertisement for The Old Virginia Negro is included in section 18. A copy of Thomas Jefferson’s letter, 1805, to William Armistead Burwell relates Jefferson’s views that slavery will disappear only after long suffering (section 8).” VHS-AA.] [Bagby edited a newspaper in Petersburg after the Civil Ward. RDW] Banister, Anne A. (Mrs. A[rchibald] Campbell Pryor), “Incidents in the Life of a Civil War Child.” UNC/CH. [CW.]

Banister, John, account book, 1731-1743. 1 vol. VHS. [“Kept as collector of customs for the Upper James District of Virginia. Includes listings of duties on cargoes of wine and alcohol, tobacco, slaves, salt, corn, molasses, sugar, animal skins, and oranges.” VHS-AA.] [This would be John Banister II, the son of the naturalist, who grew up in the Byrd household at Westover following his father’s untimely death in 1692, apprenticed as scribe and storekeeper. He ran Byrd’s store at Westover, and then, upon Byrd’s departure for London in the 1720s, took charge of the management of all of Byrd extensive holdings. By 1731, Byrd had long since returned to Westover. RDW.]

Banister, John (1734-1788), letter, 1781. 4 pp. VHS. [“Letter, 11 May 1781, concerning loss of slaves as a result of the British raids near Petersburg.” VHS-AA.] [This is Col. John Banister III, grandson of the naturalist, Member of the Continental Congress, and framer of the Articles of Confederation. The British under Phillips and Arnold drove American militia out of Petersburg in the Battle of Petersburg, 25 April 1781, burned tobacco and shipping, and then moved northward towards Richmond, burning warehouses and ships along the way. They returned shortly to join Cornwallis in Petersburg, where many British troops encamped on Banister’s grounds. When Cornwallis and his army left Petersburg on a path that would take them to Yorktown, they took more than eighty of Banister’s slaves with them. RDW.]

Barksdale, Peter, Papers, 17183-1895. Virginia Microform. PUL. [Halifax County and Petersburg, Virginia.]

Barnard, J.G. (John Gross), 1815-1882, Papers, 1864-1865. 2 items. Duke. [“Engineer; Union Army officer, stationed in Washington, D.C. Manuscript copy of documents exchanged between Barnard, chief engineer on Grant’s staff, and Major General Burnside, July 3-August 6, 1864, relative to mining operations under the Confederate defenses at Petersburg, Va., and the battle of the Crater on July 30; and an extract from a letter by Barnard to his wife, April 2, 1865, reporting on the last days of the siege of Petersburg. Formerly known as the John Gross Barnard Papers.” Duke]

Baxter, Thomas, 1799–1878, Correspondence, 1845–1887. 107 items. Duke. [“Commission merchant and businessman, of Petersburg, Va. Personal and business correspondence, including significant Civil War letters describing Confederate defenses around Hertford, N.C., and the problem of traitors in that vicinity; the impressment of buildings in Greensboro, N.C., for hospitals; the defense of Norfolk, Va., in 1861; reaction to Southern secession in Connecticut; and wartime conditions in Plaquemines Parish, La. Postwar letters are concerned with radical rule in North Carolina during the carpetbag era, and with T. H. Baxter’s schooling at Virginia Military Institute. Includes a letter from George Wythe Munford.” Duke]

Baylor Family Papers. VHS.

Bean, Jesse S., Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Beckwith, Margaret Stanley (b. 1842), reminiscences, 1844-1865. 3 vols. VHS. [“Concern her experiences at Woodbourne in Prince George County and Petersburg, and in Licolnton, N.C. The front endpaper of Volume I records the tombstone inscription of the slave Lucy Lockett (1774-1836). Volumes 1 and 2 contain many scatteresd references to domestic slaves during the 1850s and 1860s. Volume 1 features music and lyrics for several popular songs, including ‘Old Uncle Ned’ and ‘Old Black Joe.’ On page 47 is an account of the ship Minot, manned by free blacks during the Civil War.” VHS-AA.] [An important collection for the antebellum period. Beckwith was Edmund Ruffin’s granddaughter. RDW.]

Bernard, George S., Diary and Papers. UVa. [CW.]

Bird Family Papers. VHS. [Antebellum; CW; Post-Bellum.]

Blanton Family Papers. VHS. [Includes Jennie Friend Stephenson, “My Father and His Household, Before, During, and After the War.” A.W. Greene]

Board of Public Works Papers [Virginia]. LV. Bolling Records and Papers. Were at PPL, but I believe today at Centre Hill.

Booth, Armistead, Papers. 1803–1990. 12 boxes (10 linear feet). Location: Alexandria. Guide available online. VHP. [“These papers reflect Armistead Boothe’s advocacy of civil rights legislation, and his political activity with such issues as public schools, transportation, segregation and other political issues in Virginia, especially during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Personal papers in this collection relate to family matters such as Gardner Boothe’s courtship of Eleanor Carr and Armistead Boothe’s school and military experiences. The collection includes scrapbooks, journals, albums, memorabilia and other forms of personal papers from various family members. One scrapbook documents Joseph Armistead Carr’s career and death as a Rough Rider (Box 173B). Among the highlights of the business, legal, and financial papers in this collection are Captain William Boothe’s ship logs. Genealogical papers relate to the Boothe, Carr, Harrison, and other families of Virginia and Alexandria. Armistead Boothe (1907-1990) was an Alexandria lawyer and politician who got his start practicing law with his father, Gardner Lloyd Boothe (1872-1964). Armistead Boothe’s law career in Alexandria lasted from 1929 to 1970 with a two year break while he served as special assistant to the U.S. Attorney General from 1934 to 1936 and a 2 1/2 year stint in the U.S. Navy during World War II on the second Hornet aircraft carrier. Boothe represented Alexandria in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1948-1956 and in the State Senate from 1959-1964, and served as City Attorney in the early 1940s. Boothe married Elizabeth (Bettie) Ravenel Peelle in 1934. Gardner Lloyd Boothe also featured prominently in Alexandria not only as an attorney, but as president of the First National Bank and the Citizens National Bank, as a member of the Virginia Theological Seminary board of trustees from 1916 to 1956, and as a vestryman at Christ Church from 1895 to 1956. He married Eleanor Harrison Carr (1881-1968) of Petersburg, Virginia in 1906. They lived at 711 Prince Street in Alexandria. Gardner Boothe’s parents, Captain William Boothe (1818-1894) and Mary Leadbeater Boothe (1839-1914), also figure in Alexandria history. Captain Boothe went to sea at an early age and worked up to ship’s captain. He later served as president of the Alexandria Water Company, vice-president of the First National Bank, and General Superintendent of the American Coal Company. Mary Boothe came from the Leadbeater Apothecary Shop family.” Alexandria] [In addition to the substantial material on Gardner Booth’s wife Eleanor Carr, note that both the Stabler and Leadbeater families, of the apothecary shop, are originally from Petersburg. RDW]

Bradley, Col. George W., Collection of Civil War Photographs. 49 albumin prints. Finding aid available online. New-York Historical Society. [49 labeled prints, of Quartermaster buildings and facilities at City Point, Point of Rocks Hospital, Aikin’s Landing, and a few elsewhere, 1864, almost all directly pertinent to the Petersburg area, and very little known. RDW] [“Restrictions/Permissions: Access: open to qualified researchers at the New-York Historical Society. “Notes: Summary: The collection holds forty-nine albumen photographs of administrative buildings, barracks, warehouses, and other structures created to provide logistical support for the Union Army during the Siege of Petersburg. The photgrapher is unknown, but as the images are uniform, lightly peopled, and distinctly documentary, they were probably commissioned by the Quartermaster Corps to record their installation. Each photograph was captioned after being mounted. They date between November 1864 and January 1865, during which time Colonel Bradley was commander of the depot. The scenes of the City Point compound include a photograph of Appomattox Manor, the home of local doctor Richard Epps, which became the headquarters of Union General Rufus Ingalls. General Ingalls (1818-1893) was Chief Quartermaster for all Union armies operating around Richmond from 1864 through the war’s end; he had selected City Point as a depot venue and oversaw the construction of the installation. “Summary: There is one photograph of the office of Assistant Quarter Master E.J. Strang, the commander of the City Point repair operations. Other images in this series document the wharves, lumberyard, stables, and repair workshops, as well as the office of Colonel Bradley. There are several views of the General Hospital, and two views of the Government Bakery, which produced over 100,000 loaves of bread a day. Photographs of depot housing include the living quarters for carpenters and other workers, as well as the barracks that were home to the three thousand wharf hands employed to unload the boats. Riverside photographs show some of the transport steamers and ships that supplied the depot. In addition, there is one non-City Point image, of the Hide and Fat Building at Cedar Level, which was located halfway to Petersburg on the City Point Railroad. “Summary: There is one series of eight images of the large military hospital campus created at Point of Rocks on the opposite side of the Appomattox River, upriver from City Point. There are four photographs taken near Aikins Landing northwest of City Point, up the James River towards Richmond. At the end of the collection are six images by the firm of Bostwick Brothers who, according to their own inscriptions, were “Post Photographers.” Subjects include the Sixth Maine Regiment, and two groups of New York soldiers near Brandy Station in Culpepper County, between City Point and Washington, D.C. There is one riverside view of the White House on the Pamunkey River, which was the site of another Union Army supply depot, and two images of the log headquarters of General Gershom Mott, a commander of the New Jersey National Guard. “Historical Note: Colonel George W. Bradley, a New York native and a career military man, was commander of the City Point depot from November 7, 1864, until the closing and decommissioning of the compound in the summer of 1865 following the end of the war. The Army of the Potomac’s supply depot at City Point, Virginia, was located at the confluence of the Appomattox and James Rivers, twenty miles southwest of the Confederate capital at Richmond. The enormous complex of nearly three hundred buildings, including repair shops, warehouses, rations commissaries, barracks, and hospitals, as well as eight wharves and miles of attendant rail lines, rose up in less than a month after General Ulysses S. Grant issued his June 18, 1864 order to create a local base of support for Union troops involved in the siege of the strategically important city of Petersburg. The depot provided daily rations for a half-million soldiers and tens of thousands of their horses, ammunition for their rifles (stored on a special and isolated ordnance wharf), and repair of everything that they used, from wagons and ambulances to saddles and horseshoes. The Union Army’s military railroad division built a network of rail lines that eventually surrounded Petersburg, eight miles to the southwest, and connected the City Point wharves directly with the front lines. “Description: 49 albumen prints : b&w..; Arranged in four series: I. City Point on the James and Appomattox Rivers, Virginia. II. Point of Rocks on the Appomattox River, Virginia. III. Aikins Landing on the James River, Virginia. IV. Miscellaneous views by Bostwick Brothers.” New-York Historical Society]

Bradley, William Edward, Diary. NC Archives & History, Raleigh. [CW.]

Bragg, the Rev. George Freeman, Papers, 1882-1925. VSU. Guide available online. VHP. [“The Bragg papers are made up of some business correspondence, writings and copies of the Afro-American Churchman and The Church Advocate. In the Afro-American Churchman and The Church Advocate, the Rev Mr. Bragg provides the only record of the development of the black Episcopal Church in America. The newspapers are unique and reflect the current political and social views of the African-American Episcopal Church at that time. Here one may find articles written by some of the leading African Americans of the time. Topics about the “Negro Problem”, Liberia, and “Jim Crowism,” are some of the issues addressed.” VSU.]

Bragg, Thomas, Diary and Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Branch, Edward B., Papers, 1861-1862. 1 vol. Duke. Microfilm, PPL. [“Insurance agent and Confederate officer, from Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. Letterpress book of Edward Branch concerning his business career as an insurance agent and his connections with the firm of S. G. Branch and Brother; and his service in the Quartermaster Corps of the Confederate Army. The latter papers, November, 1861-March, 1862, relate principally to the shipment of supplies for the Southern troops, and are for the most part routine.” Duke]

Brantingham, Henry, and W.H.S. Burgwyn Diary. NC Archives & History, Raleigh. [CW.]

British American Tobacco Company, Records, 1842-1929. 372 items. Finding aid available online. Duke. [“Correspondence, account books, including payroll, shipping, stock, storage, production sales, insurance and inventory books, ledgers, journals, and bills of exchange, of the company’s branch at Petersburg, Va., and of its subsidiaries and predecessors in Petersburg and Richmond: David Dunlop, Export Leaf Tobacco Company, D.B. Tennant & Company, Cameron & Cameron, and T.C. Williams Company.” Duke]

Brock, Ignatius Wadsworth, 1842–1864, Papers, 1860–1864. 31 items. Duke. [“Private, l862-l863, and officer, l863-l864, in Confederate Army. Resident of Jones County, N.C. Letters from Brock, mostly to his sister, but also to his brothers, and eight of his student writings. Includes letter and valedictory address from Richlands Academy in Onslow County, N.C., (l860) and letters and topical papers from Trinity College in Randolph County, N.C. (l860-l862). Civil War letters (l862-l864) are from his service in Co. G, 46th Regiment N.C. Troops, mostly in Virginia. Includes references to military actions and camp life involving: Seven Days’ Battles, Camp Lee, James and Appomattox rivers, and Prince George Court House (l862); Pocotaligo, S.C., Fair Oaks and Seven Pines Battlefield, Bristoe Station, and picket duty near Rapidan Station (l863); and camp near Orange Court House and the siege of Petersburg, especially the defense of the railroad to Weldon (l864). The letters contain religious views, family news, and advice for his sister’s conduct. Also copies of three letters between John Slidell and Count Walewski, French minister of state, about the causes of the Civil War and recognition of the Confederacy (Oct., l861). A typescript of most of the letters includes biographical and family information.” Duke]

Brodnax, John Grammer, 1829-1907, Papers, 1830-1929. [bulk 1856-1919]. 1,389 items. Duke. [“Physician and Confederate surgeon, from Greensboro (Guilford Co.), N.C. Personal, professional and family correspondence of three generations of the Brodnax family, centering around John G. Brodnax. Pre-Civil War letters refer to the sale of slaves; wartime correspondence reflects the fear of the advancing Union forces. Postwar papers include Brodnax’s appointment as assistant surgeon general of a North Carolina hospital at Petersburg, Va., overseeing the discharge of disabled Confederate soldiers, and his oath of allegiance to the United States. Also includes letters to his wife during her summer visits with relatives. Many papers concern Mrs. Brodnax’s activities in the Daughters of the American Revolution and the United Daughters of the Confederacy; others relate to attendance of family members at various North Carolina and Virginia schools and colleges. There are also letters from Germany and Europe in the 1870s and 1880s and Mexico in 1910.” Duke] [His name reveals his Petersburg origins. The collection spells it “Grammar,” but the namesake at least spelled it “Grammer.” RDW]

Brodnax, John Grammar, Papers. UNC/Chapel Hill. [CW.] [See above. These may be the same collection. RDW]

Brown, Alexander Gustavus, Papers. VHS.

Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company, “Visit Historic Petersburg” pamphlet. Duke.

Brown, Coalter, Tucker Papers (I), 1780–1929. 3,933 items. Locatio: W&M/SL. Guide avalable online. VHP. [“Papers, 1780-1929, of the Brown, Coalter, Tucker families including the papers of John Coalter (1769-1838), Judge of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia, and John Thompson Brown (1802-1836), member of the Virginia House of Delegates. Among the correspondents are Maria (Rind) Coalter, St. George Tucker, William Munford, Frances Bland (Tucker) Coalter, St. George Tucker Coalter, Frances Bland (Coalter) Brown, the Rev. Moses D. Hoge, and Henry Peronneau Brown. Note: The superscript numbers denote generations within each family. “Brown Family—Henry Brown 1(1716-1766) was born in Bedford County, Virginia. He married Alice Beard and had eleven children including; Capt. Henry Brown (1760-1841), and Daniel Brown (1770-1818). “Henry Brown 2 (1760-1841), later commissioned as a Captain, was wounded in the Revolutionary War. After the war he opened a store in New London, Bedford (later Campbell) County with his brother, Daniel. He had a full and interesting life in mercantile pursuits, being involved in several ventures with other partners, and spending a good deal of his time in court collecting debts. He acted as Federal Tax Collector in Bedford County, 1800-1803, a deputy inspector of revenue and served several terms as a Sheriff. He was also a treasurer of the New London Academy Meeting House and the New London Agricultural Society. New London is in present day Campbell County, Virginia. His business and personal papers present a picture of the successful business man of that day. No letters written by Captain Henry Brown are in this collection, though many references to letters he had written are to be found. Capt. Henry Brown (1760-1841), married Frances Thompson (1775-1822). Their children included Henry Brown, Jr. (1797-1836), who married Eleanor Tucker; Samuel T. Brown, who married Lissie Huger; Locky [Lockie] T. Brown(b. 1827), who married Alexander Irvine; Frances Brown, who married Edwin Robinson; Alice Brown, who married William M. Worthington; and John Thompson Brown (1802-1836), who married Mary E. Willcox. “Many papers of Henry Brown, Jr. 3 (1797-1836), are included in this collection, but his personality makes little impression on the reader. Toward the end of his short life he served in his father’s store in Lynchburg, later opening a store of his own. Henry Brown Jr. married Eleanor Tucker. He died of an illness that had plagued him from his early years. “John Thompson Brown 3 (1802-1836) was born near Bedford County, Virginia. He was a graduate of Princeton who later read law under Judge Creed Taylor. John became a member of the House of Delegates from Clarksburg, Harrison County, Virginia (later West Virginia), at the age of 26. Following his marriage in 1830 to Mary E. Willcox, daughter of a leading citizen of Petersburg {John Vaughan Willcox—RDW}, he was elected to the House of Delegates. His speeches to the House of Delegates on slavery, states rights, and politics in the Jackson and post-Jackson period exist in pamphlet form and are valuable for their insight into the position taken by Virginians in this period. He also served as member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention from 1829-1830. At the age of 29 he was mentioned as a possible candidate for U.S. Senator (appointed by the State legislature at the time), and undoubtedly would have been an important figure in national politics if he had not suffered an untimely death at the age of 34. He and Mary Willcox had three children; Henry Peronneau Brown (1832-1894), John Willcox Brown (b. 1833), and Col. John Thompson Brown II (1835-1864). “Col. John Thompson Brown II 4 (1835-1864), was less than two years old when his father died. He lived to carry out his father’s ideas in the next generation when the debate regarding state rights and slavery came to be settled by recourse to arms. His fiery speeches contributed to the war fever, a war in which he rose to the rank of Colonel in the artillery before being killed by a sniper’s bullet on May 6, 1864. “Henry Peronneau Brown 4(1832-1894), was named after a Princeton schoolmate and close friend of his father’s, Peronneau Finley, of Charleston, South Carolina. Henry Peronneau Brown lived briefly with his namesake after his father’s death. The correspondence of Henry Peronneau Brown with his wife and their relatives, is chiefly of value for the insight it gives into family affairs during the Civil War and the Reconstruction. Henry Peronneau Brown (1832- 1894), married Frances Bland Coalter (1835-1894), in 1858. They were the parents of John Thompson Brown III (b. 1861), who married Cassie Dallas Tucker Brown (fl.1898), reuniting the Tucker family with the line. They in turn had five children; John Thompson Brown IV (b. 1896); Frances Bland Coalter Brown; Henry Peronneau Brown III; Charles Brown; Elizabeth Dallas Brown; and Willcox Brown. “Coalter Family—John Coalter 1(1769-1838), was born in 1769 to parents Michael Coalter and Elizabeth Moore. While his father was away serving in the war against the British, John Coalter and his brothers worked the family farm on Walker’s Creek in Rockbridge County, Virginia. After brief schooling he became tutor to the children of St. George Tucker (1752-1827), and Frances (Bland) Randolph Tucker (d.1788). Following the death of Mrs. Tucker, Coalter moved with the family to Williamsburg, serving without pay in return for the legal training he received from Judge St. George Tucker (1752-1827). While studying law, he also attended lectures at the College of William and Mary under Bp. James Madison and George Wythe. In December 1790, he received his license to practice law. A year later he married Maria Rind, the orphaned daughter of a Williamsburg printer, who had been serving as governess for the Tucker children. After the death of Maria Rind Coalter (d.1792), in childbirth, he married (1795), Margaret Davenport (d. 1795), of Williamsburg, who also died in childbirth within the year. Ann Frances Bland Tucker (1785-1813), daughter of St. George Tucker, was taken as his third wife in 1802. John Coalter had been her tutor twelve years before. She later bore him his only three children, Frances Lelia Coalter (1803-1822), Elizabeth Tucker Coalter Bryan (1805-1853), and St. George Tucker Coalter (1809- 1839). John Coalter later became a Circuit Judge of the Virginia General Court and bought “Elm Grove,” an estate in Staunton, Virginia. Coalter continued to live there until 1811, at which time he moved to Richmond to serve as Judge of the Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1822, Coalter took his fourth wife, the widow Hannah (Jones) Williamson. In his latter years he enjoyed wide holdings and interests, including a lively concern with gold mining in Virginia. John Tucker Coalter died at “Chatham” plantation in Stafford County, Virginia, 1838. “Elizabeth Tucker Coalter 2 (1805-1853), married John Randolph Bryan (godson of John Randolph of Roanoke) in 1831 and lived at Eagle Point, Gloucester County, Virginia. They had nine children; John Coalter Bryan (1831-1853), Delia Bryan, (d. 1833), Frances Tucker Bryan (b. 1835), Randolph Bryan (b. 1837), Georgia Screven Bryan (b. 1839), St. George Tucker Bryan (b. 1843), Joseph Bryan (b. 1847), Thomas Forman Bryan (1848-1851), Corbin Braxton Bryan (b. 1852). “St. George Tucker Coalter 2 (1809-1839), married the strong-willed Judith Harrison Tomlin (1808-1859). He lived out his life fighting sickness and the losing battle of making his farm profitable. Judith Harrison Tomlin collected letters, which included many exchanged by the fourteen cousins (nine Bryans and five Coalters). Though none of these people were prominent on the large canvas of life, their collected letters give an interesting and informative picture of life in Virginia in the first half of the nineteenth century. St. George and Judith Coalter had six children; Walker Tomlin Coalter (1830-1831); John Coalter (1831-1883); Henry Tucker (1833-1870); Ann Frances Bland Coalter (1835-1894), who married Henry Peronneau Brown (1832-1894), in 1858; Virginia Braxton Coalter (b. 1837), who married William. P. Braxton in 1855; and St. George Tucker Coalter (b. 1839), who married Amelia Downy in 1862 and Charlotte (Downy) Terrill in 1868. See Brown Family. “Tucker Family—St. George Tucker 1(1752-1827), was born in 1752 near Port Royal, Bermuda to Ann Butterfield Tucker and Henry Tucker, a merchant. St. George Tucker had a extensive career in law starting with his acceptance to the College of William and Mary under the tutelage of George Wythe in 1771. He served as clerk of courts of Dinwiddlie County, 1774; commonwealth attorney for Chesterfield County, 1783-1786; law professor at the College of William and Mary, 1790; and federal court judge for Virginia, 1813-1825. In 1771, he married Frances (Bland) Randolph, a widow, who had three children from a previous marriage; Richard Randolph, Theodorick Randolph (d. 1792), and John Randolph of Roanoke. St. George and Frances Randolph Tucker together, had five children; Henry St. George Tucker (1780-1848), Tudor Tucker, Ann Frances Bland Tucker (1785-1813), Elizabeth Tucker (b. 1788), and Nathaniel Beverley Tucker (1784-1851). They lived on the Randolph plantation, “Mattoax” in Chesterfield County, Virginia, until the death of Frances Randolph Tucker in 1788. In 1791, St. George remarried the widow Lelia Skipwith Carter (fl. 1795). None of their three children lived to adulthood. “Henry St. George Tucker 2 (1780-1848), served as a professor of law at the University of Virginia; in the Virginia House of Delegates, 1806-1807; in the U.S. Congress, 1815-1819; and in the Virginia Senate, 1819-1824. He married Anne Evelina Hunter in 1806 and had at least eleven children, including; Randolph Tucker, Dr. David Hunter Tucker, Frances Tucker, Mary Tucker, Virginia Tucker, Anne Tucker, and John Randolph Tucker (1823-1897). Randolph Tucker 3 married Lucy (?). The couple had children; St. George Tucker and Judge Randolph Tucker. Dr. David Hunter Tucker 3 married Eliz Dallas and had Rev. Dallas Tucker and Cassie Dallas Tucker. John Randolph Tucker 3(1823-1897), married Laura Holmes Powell in 1848 and had seven children. He was served as attorney general of Virginia, 1857-1865; professor of law at Washington College (currently Washington and Lee University); and was elected to U.S. Congress, 1874-1887. Ann Frances Bland Tucker 2 (1785-1813), married John Coalter (1769-1838). See Coalter Family. “Nathaniel Beverley Tucker 2 (1784-1851), graduated from the College of William and Mary with a law degree. In 1807, he married Mary Coalter (d. 1827), sister of John Coalter (1769-1838). He moved to Missouri and became the Circuit Court Judge of the Missouri Territory in 1817. Nathaniel remarried twice, to Eliza Naylor in 1828 and to Lucy Anne Smith. He returned to teach at the College of William and Mary in 1834. “Other People—William Munford (1775- 1825): A friend of John Tucker Coalter’s (1769-1838), from his Williamsburg days, William Munford, a poet and lawyer of some note, wrote letters to Coalter which contain interesting reports of the College of William and Mary and of Harvard University. He wrote of the poverty stricken French immigrants in Norfolk, and sent vivid descriptions of the activity of the British fleet in the Chesapeake Bay during the War of 1812. He lived and studied with George Wythe in Williamsburg, later moving with him to Richmond to serve as his clerk. His remarks on Wythe, for whom he had a great affection, throw light on that important member of the legal profession in the new nation. “Gary A. Adams’ (fl. 1900), connection to the family is unknown. However, several bills to him from the dry goods stores and the household supply stores are included in the collection. “Cynthia Beverly (Tucker) Washington Coleman (1832-1908) of Williamsburg, was an aunt of Cassie Tucker. “Judge John Randolph Tucker (ca. 1915). Newspaper Clippings, 1913-1915, from Nome, Alaska concern the term of judgeship of John Randolph Tucker, (ca. 1915). “Capt. David Tucker Brown (ca. 1918), was a member of the 1918 Peace Commission, Paris France.” W&M/SL]

Buchanan, Hamilton and Co., Invoice Book, 1784. Public Records Office, Chancery Lane, London. [Records of David Buchanan, of Glasgow, a very important tobacco merchant in Petersburg in the 1780s and 1790s. Partner of James & John Dunlop and of Robert and Allan Pollok, he purchased the “Golden Ball” property after the tobacco merchant Richard Hanson recovered it through the courts, lived there, married a Gilliam, recovered the family fortune, and went back to London and then Scotland as a landed lord.]

Buchanan, Hamilton, and Co., Sales Book, 1784. Public Records Office, Chancery Lane, London. [Records of David Buchanan, of Glasgow, a very important tobacco merchant in Petersburg in the 1780s and 1790s. Partner of James & John Dunlop and of Robert and Allan Pollok, he purchased the “Golden Ball” property after the tobacco merchant Richard Hanson recovered it through the courts, lived there, married a Gilliam, recovered the family fortune, and went back to London and then Scotland as a landed lord.]

Burchett, J.R., Letter. VHS.

Burke Family Papers. VHS.

Bryan Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Burwell Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Callender, Mrs. Bessie, “Personal Recollections of the Civil War.” PNB. [CW.]

Campbell, Charles (1807-1876) Papers, 1743-1896. 5,146 items. Location: W&M/SL. Guide available online. VHP. [“Papers received or collected by Charles Campbell (1807-1876), Virginia Historian, as well as letters and other papers, 1743-1896. Includes the business correspondence of Charles Campbell with various editors of The Southern Literary Messenger, several historical societies, publishing firms, historians and authors, with Petersburg, Virginia. Items also relate to organizations and institutions with which he was affiliated, to the school that he conducted in Petersburg and to his personal correspondence with friends and members of his family. Diaries and notebooks both kept by Charles Campbell and his wife Anna Burdsall Campbell, plus 18 scrapbooks, autographs, historical notes, etc. are also found in the collection.” W&M/SL] [“The Charles Campbell papers consist of papers received or collected by Charles Campbell (1807-1876) Virginia historian. The papers fall into four general headings: historical papers collected by Charles Campbell, correspondence, manuscript volumes, and miscellaneous. These include personal and professional correspondence as well as eighteenth century documents collected by Charles Campbell, newspaper clippings, diaries, scrapbooks, and notebooks, covering then period 1743-1896. The papers reflect Charles Campbell’s interests in history, teaching, newspaper editing, railroad engineering, politics, genealogy, publication of his works, and the town of Petersburg where he lived for most of his life. “The personal papers include Charles Campbell’s correspondence with his father John Wilson Campbell, brother Alexander Campbell, sister, wife and children as well as cousins in Tennessee, Alabama, and Virginia. These include copies of Charles Campbell’s letters, as well as letters received by him; biographical material; genealogical material; autograph collecting material; and letters received by Charles Campbell’s second wife Anna Burdsall Campbell. These also include correspondence relating to organizations with which he was affiliated, such as the Petersburg Library and the Petersburg Lyceum. “His professional correspondence consists of letters to the editors of the Southern Literary Messenger, to historical societies, to publishing firms, and to other historians and authors. The writing, publishing and critic of Charles Campbell’s book Virginia History, concerns much of these material. Charles Campbell also corresponded with genealogists and antiquarians interested in Virginia history. “The eighteenth century documents collected by Charles Campbell include letters by John Quarles, John Byrd, George Dabney, William Degge, Edward Hill, John Jameson, Alexander Moore, William Aylett, and Theodorick Bland, as well as parts of William Aylett’s account books (1770-1776). “The manuscript volumes include Charles Campbell’s diaries (1861-1864), Anna Burdsall Campbell diaries (1840-1870), scrapbooks, Charles Campbell’s historical notes, newspaper clippings, Anderson Seminary account books, Charles Campbell’s pupil exercise books, pamphlets, copies of Charles Campbell’s articles, and household account books (1848-1863). “There are many letters from Mary B. Carter of “Shirley,” Charles City County, Virginia to Mildred Walker (Moore) Campbell, Charles Campbell’s mother.” W&M/SL] [Includes the Minutes of the Washington Street Church Ladies Organization.]

Campbell, Charles, Papers. Duke.

Carrington Family Papers. VHS.

Christ and Grace Episcopal Church Records. LV.

Miscellaneous microfilm, Reel 2030.]

Claiborne, John Herbert. Letters, 1864–1865. LV.

Claiborne, John H., Papers. UVa. [CW.]

Claiborne, Dr. John, Letters. University of Virginia Library.

Clarke Family Papers. VHS.

Clarke, William J., Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Clopton Family Papers. Duke.

Cocke, Harrison Henry, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Coiner Family Papers. VHS.

Colson-Hill Family Papers, 1833-1983. Ca. 100,000 items. VSU. Guide available online. VHP. [“The Colson Hill Family Papers document one of the most unique African-American families in the United States. This manuscript group covers this family’s life and activities in the Commonwealth of Virginia from 1834-1984. These papers document the family’s involvement with: The establishment of Liberia, the Underground Railroad, the establishment of Virginia State University, public education in Petersburg and in Virginia, the readjuster party, business in Petersburg and the social and community activities in the African American community as well. Not only did Miss Colson become keeper of the family papers, her long an outstanding career led to the creation of a large number of records documenting her productive life as well. Miss Colson was a teacher and a teacher of teachers. She was a student and believer in the idea that education could solve society’s social, political, and economic ills. The papers provide a window into several aspects of African-American society rarely scene. The bulk of the materials is in the form on correspondence; however, there are numerous printed items and photographs as well. The papers are quite useful for the study of: History of Education, Women’s History, Local History, Family History, and Social and Economic History.” VSU]

Confederate Hospital Records, 2nd NC Hospital, Petersburg. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Confederate Military Leaders Collection. Museum of the Confederacy [Letter of William J. Pegram.]

Confederate States of America Collection. Museum of the Confederacy.
[Records of Military Court, Department of Virginia and North Carolina.]

Conolly, Thomas, Diary. VHS.

Convention Records of 1861. LV.

Cooke, Giles Buckner, Diary and Papers. VHS.

Costen, Lucy S., Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Cowand, Winifred A., Papers. Duke.

Crawford, Abel H., Letters, 1863-1865. 1 vol. Duke.
[“Confederate soldier, from Cotton Valley (Macon Co.), Ala. Typed copies of the letters of a soldier in the 61st Alabama Regiment. The letters concern the Wilderness campaign, the defense of Petersburg, and the battle of Cedar Creek, all in 1864, and the final months of the war in Virginia. The papers contain one letter from Crawford’s slave, Jim, who was his servant in the army, and copies of the muster rolls of the 45th and 61st Alabama regiments.” Duke]

Cuningham, Alexander, d. ca. 1850, Papers, 1740-1918. [bulk 1825-1859]. 6,371 items. Duke.
[“Merchant, from Petersburg, Va. Business records and some personal correspondence of four generations of the Cuningham family, including Robert Cuningham; Alexander Cuningham, and his brother, Richard M. Cuningham; the latter’s son, John Wilson Cuningham; and grandson, John Somerville Cuningham, all merchants and planters. The early papers center around Alexander and Richard’s success as commission merchants for cotton and tobacco in Petersburg, Va., and the firm’s planting interests in Person County, N.C. The collection also contains a few family letters, including some from Alexander Jr. while a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and from another son at Leasburg Academy, Caswell County, N.C. The papers of John Somerville Cuningham concern his work as a field agent for the Bureau of Crop Estimates, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, local politics, and family matters.” Duke]

Dabney Papers. Union Theological Seminary, Richmond. [CW.]

Davidson, Nora Fontaine Maury, “Cullings from the Confederacy 1862–1866.” Museum of the Confederacy.

Davidson, James, Record Book, 1825-1860. 1 vol. Duke. [“Record of inquests by James Davidson while coroner of Petersburg, Va.” Duke]

Davis Family Papers, 1852–1937. ca. 450 items. Guide available online. Alderman. [“There are ca. 450 items, 1852-1937, pertaining to the Davis Family, founders of the Southern Female College in Petersburg, Virginia. There is correspondence of the Davis family; and, there are correspondence, papers, photographs, and printed relating to the Southern Female College and Petersburg Female College.” Alderman]

Deane, James, “Following the Flag: The Three Years’ Story of a Veteran, 1862–1865.” Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford.

Dearing Family Papers. VHS.

Dent, Montgomery Corse, Papers, 1846–1982. 1 box (0.5 linear feet. Location: Alexandria. Guide available online. VHP. [“The bulk of the collection is related to Montgomery D. Corse’s military career, including muster rolls, commission and discharge certificates, and 63 letters written by Corse to his wife, Elizabeth Beverley Corse, during his participation in the Civil War. In addition, the papers of Midshipman William H. Peters and a few letters written by Mrs. Corse are included.” Alexandria.] [Conferate Brifaadier General, served at Blackwater River, New Bern, Howlett’s Line, Saylor’s Creek (captured). RDW]

De Rosset Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Devereaux, Thomas Pollack, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Dimmock, Charles Henry. Papers. VHS.

Dobie, Captain David F., Letters, 1861-1865. 48 letters. UVa. Guide available online. VHP. [“This collection consists of forty-eight letters of Captain David F. Dobie, 1862-1865, while serving with the 118th N.Y. Infantry in the Civil War and later as Judge Advocate at brigade headquarters. Other papers of Captain David F. Dobie consisting of general orders, returns, receipts, ordnance invoices, reports of deserters, etc. can be found in the University of Virginia Special Collections under a separate accession number (1066). There are also letters of Captain Dobie in the New York State Library. This collection includes excerpts of forty-eight letters to Hattie Jillson of Watervliet, New York, regarding his military duties as a provost general, court martial advocate and a brigade inspector. They also include comments on General Tecumseh Sherman’s military strategy and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.” UVa.] [About eighteen of the included letters were writeen from Union lim=nes on the Petersburg frunt between 9 July 1864 and 19 February 1865. RDW]

Dorsey-Coupland Papers, 1840-1876, 1843-1865. 413 items. W&M/SL. Inventory available online. VHP. [“Correspondence, chiefly 1843-1865, between members of the Dorsey and Coupland families of Virginia. This inventory contains correspondence, chiefly 1843-1865, of John R. Coupland of Williamsburg, Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia with his wife Susan Henley Coupland. Some letters were written to Susan Henley Coupland while she was in Williamsburg and he was in Richmond working in Second Auditor’s Office of Confederate States of America War Department. Letters written by Carter Coupland while serving on Confederate steamers are also included. This inventory also contains correspondence of Juliana Ruffin Coupland Dorsey with members of the Edmund Ruffin family and with her sister Jane S. Ruffin Dupuy and members of the Dupuy family. Includes letters written by Edmund Ruffin, Jr.; one letter, 20 June 1864, written by Edmund Ruffin (1794-1865) and letters containing references to him. Juliana Ruffin Copeland Dorsey and Jane S. Ruffin Dupuy were sisters of Edmund Ruffin.” (1794-1865). W&M/SL]

Downman, Robert, Account Book, 1802-1826. 1 vol. (78 pp.) Duke. [‘Resident of Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. Lists of slaves belonging to various owners with their ages and dates of birth; list of birth dates for the children of a free black woman; lists relating to the appraisal and sales of estates; accounts relating to guardianship; and recipes for bread and French biscuits. Members of the Hood and Downman families are mentioned.” Duke]

Elder, Thomas, Letters. VHS.

Elder, Thomas Claybrooke, Papers. VHS.

Ellis, Harry G., “The School Board of the City of Petersburg, 1868–1841.” Offices of the Superintendent of Shools (1960).

England, Alexander, Family Papers. NC Archives & History, Raleigh. [CW.]

Eppes Family Muniments. VHS.

Evans, John, “Journal of a Virginia (?) Indian Trader in North and South Carolina(?)” South Caroliniana Library, University of Sourh Carolina, Columbia. [Evans was from the Fort Henry area. His diary, a record of his activities as a trader, is from the first two decades of the 18th century. RDW]

Fowlkes, Asa G., Account Book, 1845-1861. 2 vol. Duke. [“Tobacco manufacturer of Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. Accounts kept by Fowlkes for a tobacco factory operated in partnership with James W. Smithey, 1845-1849, including a profit and loss statement, 1848-1849; and accounts, 1849-1850, for the administration of Fowlkes’ estate, including several pages on the hiring of slaves, with names of slaves, owners, and employers, including McEnery & McCulloch, David Dunlop, and other tobacco manufacturers of Petersburg. There is also a legal opinion of William Green concerning the estate of James M. McCulloch which involves the dispostion of slaves belonging to the partnership of McEnery & McCulloch; and an account for the estate of John Crostick.” Duke]

Frank, Alexander, Correspondence, 1857–1878. 82 items. Duke. [“Correspondence of three North Carolina families, the Headricks (Hedricks), Bosses, and Franks, who settled in Illinois, Missouri, Indiana, and Kentucky, regarding life on the new farmlands as compared with their previous life in North Carolina. One letter from G. W. Frank describes his course of instruction at a North Carolina school, and another from Alexander Frank to his wife, Susanna, is concerned with desertion from the Confederate Army. Letters of George W. and Jesse M. Frank describe the movements of the 48th North Carolina Infantry in the Petersburg area, with comments on food, religion, and camp life; miscellaneous other Civil War letters of the Franks and their cousins, the Leonards, mention skirmishes in Virginia, food, and the battles of Spotsylvania Court House and of North Anna Creek.” Duke]

Frank Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

French, S. Bassett, Biographical Sketches. LV. [Microfilm Reels 4117-4120.]

Fuller, Spencer R., 1829-1870, Diaty, 1864 Sept. 26-October 24. 1 item. Duke. [“Methodist clergyman from New York State. Rev. Fuller’s diary (1864 Sept. 26-Oct 24) kept during his service in Virginia with the U. S. Christian Commission, primarily with the 2nd and 3rd Divisions, 2nd Corps, during the siege of Petersburg. Text details casualities suffered by Union Army officers and soldiers.” Duke]

Gaither Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Gholson, Thos. S. (Thomas Saunders), 1809-1868, Papers, 1818-1860. 48 items. Duke. [“Jurist and statesman, of Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. Papers relating to cases handled by Gholson’s law firm, some of which pertain to the hiring and purchase of slaves.” Duke]

Godwin Family Papers. VHS.

Green and Ryland (Petersburg, Virginia), Records, 1874-1877. 2 vols. Duke. [Lucius Green and A.G. Ryland, grocers and commission merchants. “A journal and a cashbook of Lucius Green and A. G. Ryland, grocers and commission merchants handling cotton, tobacco, wheat, corn, flour, and other produce, and agents for Farmer’s Friend Fertilizer.” Duke]

Griswold Family, Papers, 1862–1865. 44 items. Duke. [“Residents of Guilford (New Haven Co.), Conn. Letters of three brothers, Edward, Charles, and Joel Griswold, serving in the Union Army. They describe camp life, activities in South Carolina, Virginia, and Florida, the siege of Charleston Harbor, 1863, the siege of Petersburg, 1864, the 1864 presidential election, food supplies, paid substitutes in the army, the desertion of Confederate soldiers to the Union lines, the capture of the Confederate ironclad Fingal, Lee’s surrender, and the assassination of Lincoln.” Duke]

Gruter & Gereche, Records, 1862–1864. 1 item. Duke. [“Substantial tailoring business operated by Charles Gruter and Charles Gereche in Petersburg, Va. during the Civil War. The tailoring business of Gruter & Gereche is recorded in their Daybook, June 3, 1862-Aug. 2, 1864; the Ledger, 1862-1864. Gruter & Gereche made, repaired, and cleaned clothes, and also sold related merchandise. Transactions are itemized, listing goods and services in detail. Many customers of Gruter & Gereche were officers and soldiers in the Confederate Army. Some employees of the firm appear to have been slaves. Duke] [I suspect that “Gereche” should be “Gerecke.” RDW]

Guerrant Family Papers. VHS.

Habliston, W.M. & Company Photograph, ca. 1880. 1 item, 16x10.5 cm. UVa. Guide Available Online. VHP. [“This collection consists of one sepia photograph (16 x 10.5 cm.), ca. 1880, of the front of the W.M. Habliston & Co. [Furniture ?] Store, located in Petersburg, Virginia.” UVa.] [This store stood at the northeast corner of Sycamore and Tabb, but was destroyed by fire. RDW]

Haderman, M.T., Papers, 1854-1865. 5 items. Duke. [“Union soldier, from Pennsylvania. Letters of a soldier in the 3rd United States Infantry Division at the siege of Petersburg, Va. He discusses camp life, picket duty, and building forts and entrenchments, and describes the Federal attack on Petersburg on April 2, 1865.” Duke]

Hampton, Caleb, Correspondence, 1846–1880. 165 items. Duke. [“Resident of China Grove, Rowan Co., N.C. Chiefly letters of John and David Hampton to their uncle, Caleb, and to other members of their family, describing their experiences, 1861-1865, while they were in the Confederate Army. They discuss fraternization between Northern and Southern troops, daily life, and the seige and fall of Petersburg and Richmond, Va. Caleb’s letters describe local political disturbances in Rowan County, N.C., and reflect a general war-weariness.” Duke]

Hardy, William E., Papers. Duke.

Harris, Thomas W., Papers, 1800-1887. 204 items. Duke. [“Bills and receipts concerning the sale of cotton, tobacco, and wheat by commission merchants of Petersburg, Va.; and promissory notes.” Duke]

Hart, Henry C., Correspeondence, 1864–1872. 1 box (0.35 linear feet). Alexandria. Guide avilable online. VHP. [“Most of these papers are letters from Henry C. Hart to his parents, John and Mary Nixon, who also received two letters from their nephew, John C. Hart. The letters relate to camp life in a number of Northern Virginia and Washington, D.C. locations: Soldiers Rest, Alexandria; Camp or Fort Reynolds, D.C.; Fort Sumner, D.C.; Rectortown, Fauquier County; Vienna, Virginia; Flint Hill, Rappahannock County; and Fairfax Station. Henry writes about breaking colts for the army, his health, wounded comrades, and his needs for food, clothes, boots, writing paper and stamps. He describes his delight at seeing Washington for the first time. There are also letters to the Nixons from Thompson Todd, and a bill for a list of merchandise to John Nixon from A.Y. Montgomery. Henry (Hank) C. Hart served in Company H, 204th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. His cousin, John C. Hart, was stationed at the Camp of the 100 P.E.E. in Petersburg, Virginia. Henry wrote to his parents who apparently were named John and Mary Nixon and who lived in Ohioville, Beaver County, Pennsylvania. The discrepancy in the last names is unexplained by the letters.” Alexandria]

Harvey, William Clifton, Papers, 1859–1867. 5 items. Duke. [“Confederate soldier, from Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. A letter, memorandum book, copybook, and two diaries relating to service in the 18th Virginia Infantry Regiment.” Duke]

Haskell, John Cheves, 1841-1906, Memoirs, 1903. 1 vol. Duke. [“Confederate officer and political figure, from Abbeville (Abbeville Co.), S.C. Typescript copy of Haskell’s Civil War memoirs, describing Charleston before the fall of Fort Sumter; Confederate leaders; the battles of Ball’s Bluff, Seven Pines, Brandy Station, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, the Wilderness, and Cold Harbor; actions around New Bern and Washington, N.C.; the siege of Petersburg and the battle of the Crater; analysis of why the Southerners lost at Gettysburg; conditions in Richmond; General Custer’s saddle and his spurs; the surrender at Appomattox; and his last interview with Lee.” Duke]

Haskell, John Cheves, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW,]

[See especially “Reminiscences of the Confederate War, 1861–1865.” This may be the same as the above.]

Heartt-Wilson Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.


Hill, Daniel Harvey, Papers. NC Archives & History, Raleigh. [CW.]

Hill, Daniel Harvey, Jr., Papers. NC Archives & Hisatory, Raleigh. [CW.]

Hill, D.H., Papers. LV.

Historic Blandford Cemetery Foundation Survey Records, 1987-1992. 19.7 cubic feet (45 boxes) and 49 reels of microfilm. Guide available online. VHP. [“Survey records, 1987-1992, containing information about graves in Blandford Cemetery, Petersburg, Virginia. The survey was performed by the Historic Blandford Cemetery Foundation as part of the procedure for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, to which the cemetery was added in 1992. A group of documents referred to as ‘record cards’ make up the great majority of the collection. They are arranged according to the alphanumeric identifier of a given plot and include, where available, information such as the names of those buried in it, birth and death dates, the text of tombstone inscriptions, and the type, dimensions, and condition of grave markers. Where inscriptions have been obscured or destroyed, surveyors sometimes supplemented extant information with records made by the Works Progress Administration in the late 1930s. In addition to the record cards, the collection also includes photographs of approximately one-third of the surveyed graves, administrative paperwork created by survey workers, and maps of the cemetery. Please note that the survey ended in 1992, and was not comprehensive even at that time; therefore, it cannot be taken as a complete record of the graves in Blandford Cemetery.” LV]

Historical Stories Files. PNB [CW.]

[Includes, amomg others, “Honor among Federals”; Odd Bits”; and “Protection When Necessary.”]

Holmes, Theophilus Hunter, Papers. Duke. Hook, John, Records, 1763-1829. 0.575 cubic feet. LV. Guide available online. VHP. [“Records, 1763-1829, of John Hook (1746-1808), a merchant of Bedford and Franklin Counties, Virginia. Includes three letter book volumes, 1 August 1763-28 May 1772; 1 June 1772-May 1774; 30 July 1774-16 April 1784, containing information on Hook’s mercantile activities and partnerships, analyses of trade opportunities, and dealings with several Scottish merchants prominent in colonial Virginia. Correspondence between Hook and David Ross (ca. 1739-1817) also appears in the letter books along with letters from and to other members of the Hook family. This collection also includes correspondence, 1772-1809, 1829, and n.d., both to and from John Hook concerning his business affairs and lawsuits stemming from his business dealings. There also are separate series containing legal files pertaining to David Ross’ lawsuits and a building plan for a store in New London, Bedford County, Virginia.” LV] [David Ross was a major Richmond and Petersburg merchant and manufacturor during and after the Revolution. He leased Srawberry Hill during the Revolution. RDW]

Hopkins, Abner Crump, Memoir. VHS.

Hopkins, Henry, Letters, 1862–1865. 14 items. Duke. [“Military chaplain. Civil War letters of Hopkins while serving in the U.S. Army stationed at Alexandria, Va., and after his appointment as chaplain of the 120th Regiment of New York Volunteers, to Mary Ames and Winona C. Ames. Discusses conversion of Fairfax Seminary into a convalescent camp, the surrender of Harpers Ferry, the New York draft riots, the battle of Cold Harbor, the siege of Petersburg, family matters, and the building of a chapel.” Duke]

Howard, Conway Robinson, Papers. VHS.

Jackson, Alice and Henry Colson, Papers of, 1835-1972. 50 items. VSU. Guide available online. VHP. [“Correspondence, photographs, and memoralbilia, most of which is directly related to the business activities of the Colson family during the antebellum period. Included is a 1835 letter from Joseph Jenkins Roberts who later became the first President of Liberia. Correspondence, photographs, writings, and printed matter documenting this branch of the Colson Family history. The correspondence pertaining to the house of Roberts and Colson is of particular value.” VSU.]

Jackson, Luther Porter, Papers, 1772-1960. Ca. 20,000 items. VSU. Guide available online. VHP. [“The Luther Porter Jackson papers include documents collected by Jackson to support his research as well as the correspondence produced by Dr. and Mrs. Jackson in connection with their work, interest, and friends. They reflect Luther Jackson’s life as a professor and researcher of history and his connections with various political and educational organizations; the official records of the Virginia Voters League and the official records of all fund raising for the Virginia Branch of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History Inc. The Luther Porter Jackson are one of the most valuable manuscript groups from a historical point of view in the nation, for this former professor of history at Virginia State University lived and worked during an era when the concept of black inferiority was the accepted rule. In addition, this was the time of “Jim Crowism.” Segregation was not “de facto,” it was legal and challenged by few people, black and white. “During the major time span of these papers, 1920-1950, a number of political and civil rights organizations developed into potent forces and others were born: the NAACP, the Negro Organizational Society, the Southern Regional Council, and the Southern School for Workers. This manuscript group is rich in correspondence with most of the leaders of these movements. Some of the correspondence includes Walter White, Lorenzo C. White, P. Bernard Young, Gordon Hancock and others. “Correspondence with Virginia based political and civil rights groups is strong and gives a good picture of the tempo of the era in the State: the Virginia Voters League, the Committee for Virginia, the Petersburg Negro Business League. “In addition to correspondence with major political and civil rights organizations Jackson maintained as interesting relationship with others across the U.S. The business or office correspondence of Luther P. Jackson from 1920-1950 include correspondence with John Hope Franklin, W.E.B. DuBois, Hugh Smythe, Helen Edmonds, P. Bernard Young, E. Franklin Frazier, Charles S. Johnson, Rayford Logan, Alrutheus Ambush Taylor, Lorenzo J. Green and others. “The collection also consists of ledgers, pamphlets, financial and legal documents, photographs, speeches, newspaper articles, cards, telegrams, notebooks, artifacts and Jackson’s research materials. “Jackson collected personal papers of ante-bellum and post-bellum black families in Virginia: The Butler Papers, the Layton Papers, and the Stephen Wooldrige Papers. In his research of free black property owners in Virginia, he acquired a substantial amount of materials from various counties and cities of the Commonwealth of Virginia.” VSU.]

Johnson, Bushrod, Letter Book and Papers, 1864–65. National Archives.

Jones, Joseph, 1727-1805, Papers, 1681-1895. [bulk 1794-1842]. 702 items. Finding aid available online. Duke. [“Militia officer and customs collector, of Petersburg, Va. Papers of Jones and of his children and grandchildren, including business, personal, and military correspondence, deeds, Virginia militia records, general orders, Treasury Dept. circulars, lists of licensed vessels, letters regarding western lands, and papers relating to the port of Petersburg, Va. Correspondents include John Adams, William H. Crawford, Albert Gallatin, Richard Bland Lee, James Madison, Timothy Pickering, John Randolph, and John Tyler.” Duke] Jones, Joseph, 1749-1824, Papers 1740-1978. [bulk 1825-1859]. 700 items in six series: correspondence, legal papers, financial papers, customs collector’s papers, military papers, miscellaneous. Duke. [“Landholder, merchant, customs collector, military officer, from Petersburg, Va. Correspondence, legal and financial papers, customs collector files, and other papers, chiefly 1794-1842, of three generations of the family of Joseph Jones. Includes material relating to land holdngs in Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, and Tennessee; Jones’ military service with the Viginia Militia in the Whiskey Rebellion; Jones’ service as collector of the port of Petersburg; and miscellaneous personal and family business, including some documents relating to slave holdings. Other topics inclue reaction to Jay’s Treaty, service with the 40th Virginia Infantry during the Civil War, and social conditions of women during the 19th century. Includes some correspondence with Willoughby Newton, member of Congress from Virgnia and brother to Mary Newton Jones, wife of Thomas Jones.” Duke]

Jones, Robert Randolph, 1874-1951, Papers, 1743-1951. 690 items. Duke. [“Educator, of Petersburg, Va., and El Paso, Tex. Personal papers relating to Jones’ career as an educator in Virginia and Texas; together with papers of the Blackwell family, of Lunenburg Co., Va., including genealogical data on the Cabaniss, Edmondson, Goodwin, Hawthorn, and Jones families of Virginia.” Duke]

Joyner Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Joynes, William T. (William Thomas), 1817–1872, Papers, 1848–1867. 3 items. Duke. [“Attorney and resident of Petersburg, Va. Letters to Joynes dealing with the settlement of estates, collection of debts, and the surveying of his land in Pittsylvania Co., Va.” Duke]

Laydise, Warren E., Letters, 1864-1865. 32 items. Duke. [“Union soldier, 9th New York Heavy Artillery Regiment; from Seneca Falls (Seneca Co.), N.Y. Letters from Laydise while stationed in Maryland and Virginia, discussing camp life, casualties, food, prisoners of war, and the Petersburg campaign, 1864-1865.” Duke]

Keiley Family Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Keen Family Papers. Museum of the Confederacy. [CW.]

Keith Family Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Kelly, Michael, Diary. Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford.

Latrobe, Osmun, Diary. VHS. [CW.]

Leavenworth, Abner Johnson Papers 1825-1850. 121 items. W&M/SL. Inventory available online. VHP. [“Correspondence and papers of Rev. Abner J. Leavenworth, Presbyterian clergyman relating to his theological studies at Andover, Massachusetts and New Haven, Connecticut and his ministry at Waterbury and Bristol, Connecticut, Charlotte, North Carolina and Warrenton and Petersburg, Virginia. Includes correspondence and accounts, 1835-1838, with Turner & Hughes, booksellers in Raleigh, North Carolina. Includes correspondence with his wife Elizabeth M. Peabody Leavenworth and a letter, 1832, from missionary friends in Turkey.” W&M/SL.]

Leavenworth, A.J., Papers. Duke. [Includes “Journal of a Petersburg Civilian.”]

Lee, Robert Edward, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Lee, Robert E., Headquarters Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Leckie, W. Robert, d. 1839, Papers, 1768-1906. 1,890 items. Duke. [“Military engineer, of Washington, D.C. Correspondence and other papers of Leckie, chiefly concerned with architecture, engineering, and construction; and correspondence, account books, and plantation records of his son-in-law, William Hendrick, planter of Mecklenburg Co., Va. Leckie’s papers contain information on military fortification and construction and purchase of and experimentation in building materials, and include memorandum books, accounts of stone quarries, a report on the defense of the U. S. (ca. 1815), and notations concerning the water supply of the District of Columbia. The papers of Hendrick and of his wife include correspondence from commission merchants in Petersburg, Va., and from their children at Princeton, Virginia Military Institute, and various academies; mercantile accounts; and children’s writing books.” Duke]

Legg, Charles A., Correspondence, 1861–1864. 62 items. Duke. [“Union soldier, of Auburn (Worcester Co.), Mass. Letters from Legg to his parents, William and Emma A. Legg, and to his brother, William Howard Legg, concerning Charles’ Civil War experiences while serving with the 3d Battalion, Massachusetts Riflemen, and the 1st Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry. Subjects discussed include dishonesty of Army contractors and quartermasters, troubles of the Army of the Potomac, his feelings toward blacks, the battles at Cold Harbor, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Petersburg, and the Union officers, Joseph Hooker and David Hunter.” Duke]

Leslie, Robert, Papers, 1783-1834. [bulk 1814-1872]. 15,398 items. Duke. [Robert Leslie, ca. 1794-ca. 1879. Merchant of Petersburg, Virginia. “Correspondence, accounts, invoices, statements, and legal papers (chiefly 1814-1872) of Leslie, a member of the firm of Leslie and Shepherd. The papers before 1819 largely concern the processing and sale of cotton, tobacco, rice, and western lands. Most of the papers after 1819 pertain to tobacco manufacture in the Richmond-Petersburg area. Other topics include Leslie’s career, family, and travels in England; his western landholdings and efforts to develop the West; his slaveholding and attitude toward it; mercantile prices and U.S.-British trade; and maintenance of American property owned by Englishmen. The later material includes scattered correspondence and business papers of Leslie’s nephews, Robert L. Watson and John McGill, whom Leslie had admitted to partnership in the firm.” Duke.]

Lesure, Lovell A., Papers, 1863–1913. 21 items. Duke. [“Wagon and carriage maker; Union soldier, member of the 36th Massachusetts Infantry; from Oakdale (Worcester Co.), Mass. Civil War letters to Lesure’s wife; diaries, 1863-1864; and clippings. The diaries concern army life in Tennessee; the letters describe homesickness, religious feelings, military life, and fighting around Petersburg, Va., 1865.” Duke]

Letcher, John, Executivce Papers of. LV.

Letters Received Enlisted Branch, Record Group 94. National Archives.

Mabry, Robert C., Papers. NC Archives & History, Raleigh. [CW.]

Mahone, William, Papers. LV. [Personal Papers Collection, 1866–95; Nathaniel Harris Letter, August 2, 1866.]

Mapp, G. Walter, Papers, 1895–1935. 10,139 items. Location: W&M/SL. Guide available online. VHP. [“Papers, 1895-1935, of George Walter Mapp consisting chiefly his of personal and professional correspondence. Topics in the correspondence include women suffrage, Prohibition, 1918 First District of Virginia Congressional Democratic primary, 1928 presidential election, and the 1929 Virginia gubernatorial Democratic primary. In addition to papers pertaining to Mapp’s political career, much of the collection pertains to Mapp’s legal practice on the Eastern Shore of Virginia and includes supporting notes and documents referring to specific cases. There are pamphlets, speeches and newspaper clippings covering his political career from 1911 to 1929. Prominent correspondents include S. O. Bland, Harry Flood Byrd, James Cannon, J. A. C. (Julian Alvin Carroll) Chandler, Adele Clark, George Preston Coleman, Mary Haldane Coleman, Thomas S. (Thomas Staples) Martin, Lucy Randolph Mason, R. Walton (Robert Walton) Moore, John Garland Pollard, Claude A. Swanson, E. Lee (Elbert Lee) Trinkle, Lyon G. Tyler and Lila Meade Valentine. The collection also includes correspondence of Mapp’s law partner, Herbert Barnes.” W&M/DL] [Correspondence with about twenty Petersburg-are resident, including John M. Gandy and Patrick Henry Drewry. RDW]

May, David, Papers, 1839–1862. 11 items. Duke. [“Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. resident. Collection contains May’s papers including a letter to a Southern woman in New York city, 1861; a letter, 1862, concerning the support of the family of a Confederate soldier; and letters concerning personal debts and the settlement of debts in Virginia.” Duke]

McGill-Mahone Families, Papers of, 1771-1919. ca. 5600 items. UVa. Guide available online. VHP. [“The McGill-Mahone collection is comprised of items generated by the McGill and Mahone families of Petersburg, Virginia. The collection includes business and personal correspondence, financial papers, bound financial and business records, legal documents, student class notebooks, and miscellaneous printed material. The contents of the collection concern three general topics: 1) papers pertaining to the management of property owned in Virginia by James and John Dunlop of London, England, and administered by Robert Leslie of Petersburg, Virginia; 2) papers pertaining to the tobacco firm Watson & McGill, in Petersburg, Virginia, of which Robert Leslie, R. L. Watson, and John McGill were the initial partners; and 3) papers of William Mahone pertaining to his Virginia political and business career after the Civil War. “The first group of papers, those relating to James and John Dunlop of London, England, date from 1771 to 1847. Included are land deeds for property purchased in Virginia by James and John Dunlop, primarily in Petersburg and Chesterfield County; indentures for shares in the Upper Appomatox Canal Company purchased by James and John Dunlop; bills of sale for slaves owned by Dunlop; financial records for “Roslin,” an estate near Petersburg owned by Dunlop; and letters to Robert Leslie from James Dunlop regarding Leslie’s management of Dunlop’s legal and financial affairs in Virginia. Many of these letters concern tobacco trade between the United States and England. There is also some correspondence between Leslie and Dunlop’s executors following Dunlops death ca. 1843. “The second group of papers, 1848-1918, consist of the personal and business papers of John McGill of Petersburg, Virginia, son-in-law of Robert Leslie. McGill was a partner in the tobacco firm of Watson and McGill, which operated in Petersburg, Virginia, and carried on both a foreign and domestic trade in tobacco. The financial papers include correspondence, bills, and orders, as well as numerous bound financial volumes. Also included in this section are financial papers and correspondence regarding “Dunedin,” an estate owned by John McGill. “Personal correspondence in this section is comprised primarily of letters written by William M. McGill and Henry McGill to their parents, Mr. and Mrs. William L. McGill, between 1916 and 1918. The letters were written while the two were attending various schools in Virginia, including Virginia Military Institute, Cluster Springs Academy, and Shenendoah Valley Academy. “The third group of papers pertain directly to General William Mahone and his business and political activities from 1870 to 1895. Mahone, a former Confederate general, was a controlling force in Virginia politics from around 1870 until 1883, when his party, the “Readjusters,” lost control to the “Conservative Democrats.” A division among Virginia politicians occured in the 1870’s, when those who supported a reduction of Virginia’s pre-war debt (“Readjusters”) opposed those who felt Virginia should repay its entire debt plus interest (“Funders”). Mahone and his followers successfully supported several Readjuster candidates for the governorship and legislature, with Mahone being appointed a United States Senator in March 1881. Mahone’s control of Virginia politics lasted until 1883, when the Readjusters lost majority control in the legislature, followed by the election of Fitzhugh Lee as governor in 1885. During this period, Mahone also served as president of the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad, a consolidation of three largely state-owned short lines between Norfolk and Bristol into one privately-owned railroad, authorized by legislation passed in 1870 by the General Assembly. “Mahone’s correspondence concerns Virginia politics, including the southwestern region; the railroad and mining interests owned by the railroad; and the Richmond Whig, which Mahone controlled through railroad patronage. Correspondents include James Branch, C.E. Evans, John Everett, E. Fitzgerald, Abram Fulkerson, George W. Grice, Robert W. Hughes, J.B. Hurt, J.A. Johnson, John W. Johnston, James Lawson Kemper, Nathaniel B. Meade, E.C. Robinson, John M. Robinson, George Rye, John C. Shields, J.H. Slaughter, C. Maurice Smith, Charles W. Statharn, James C. Taylor, W.F. Taylor, W.H. Turner, and R.F. Walker. In addition, there are several letters from each of the following persons: John S. Barbour, Frank S. Blair, William E. Cameron, John W. Daniel, Jubal A. Early, William C. Elam, Fitzhugh Lee, Harrison Holt Riddleberger, Waller Staplers, C.W. Stringfellow, and Gilbert C. Walker. Miscellaneous printed material and maps of mineral deposits in southwestern Virginia and property owned by Mahone in Washington, D.C., are also present. “The bound volumes consist primarily of the business records of the tobacco firm Watson & McGill from ca. 1830 to 1920. These include daybooks, journals, ledgers, order and shipping registers, invoice books, and letter books. Two tobacco workbooks are present with weekly time records of women employed in stemming tobacco. Also included in the bound volumes are several financial volumes regarding the management of James and John Dunlop’s property in Virginia by Robert Leslie. There is a detailed journal, 1829-1831, of “Roslin,” a property in Virginia owned by the Dunlops, which lists financial transactions and includes an inventory of the Roslin property, as well as a daily work record of the slaves and hired hands. “Other bound volumes include a journal of the minutes of the Smyth County Pomona Grange meetings, 1875-1879; a journal of surveying done by A. F. Bonham; and eight class notebooks, 1876-1888, of William Mahone, Jr., R. Butler Mahone, and William L. McGill.” UVa.]

Milligan, James F., CSA, Combined Service Record of. National Archives. [Milligan was in charge of the Signal Corps unit in Petersburg, 1862–1865. RDW]

McIlwaine, Archibald Graham. Letters and Papers.

McIntosh, Hattie, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

McKenney, William Robertson, Papers, 1865-1930. [bulk 1880-1900]. 4,440 items. Guide available online. Duke. [“Lawyer, of Petersburg, Va. Materials relating to McKenney’s law practice (chiefly 1880-1900), and largely concerned with the settlement of estates and the sale of real estate in Petersburg, Va.’ Duke]

McKoy, Frank R., Papers. Library of Congress.

McLaurin, Anna Blue, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Moody Family Papers, 1750-1881. 0.45 cubic feet. LV. Guide available online. VHP. [“Papers, 1750-1881, of the Moody family of Petersburg, and Brunswick and Greensville Counties, Virginia; and Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Consists of certificates, correspondence, deeds, estate records, plats, receipts, report cards, and slave lists. Correspondence principally concerns southern plantation life during the period of western migration in the southern states, illness and death of family members, crop production, slaves, fashion, and religion. There are also transcripts of the correspondence, which patrons should consult for more information relevant to the letters.” LV.]

Moore, James Otis, 1822–1886, Papers, 1850–1888. 241 items. Duke. [“Homeopathic surgeon, of Saco, York Co., Me. Correspondence exchanged between Moore and his wife, Mary Elizabeth (Ross) Moore, during his service in the Civil War with the 22d Regiment, U. S. Colored Troops, the 3d Division Hospital, Petersburg, Va., and with his regiment in Texas in 1865; together with poetry and genealogical data. Subjects include the Civil War in Virginia, contraband, medical aspects of the war, Afro-American troops, and troop movements.” Duke]

Moore, L. Robert, Papers. BHS. [CW.]

[Morrison, Marie E.], Recollections of the Evauation of Petersburg, Virginia, 1865, 1902. 1 item with 7 pages. UVa. Guide available online. VHP. [“This is a seven page typed (carbon) manuscript of the recollections of Marie E. Morrison on ‘The Evacuation of Petersburg and the entrance of the Federal Army on April 3, 1865.’ It is dated April 3, 1902, and bears several autograph corrections. The manuscript briefly mentions some of the events surrounding the retreat of the Army of Northern Virginia as well as a description (pages 5 to 7) of the burial of Private Frank E. Coyle, 3rd Company, Washington Artillery (Battalion) of New Orleans. “Frank E. Coyle was a resident of New Orleans, Louisiana, and was employed as a clerk. On April 19, 1862, at the age of nineteen, he joined the Washington Artillery in Richmond, Virginia, and was wounded in action at Gettysburgon July 3, 1863. Coyle continued to serve in the Confederate Army until his death in Petersburg during April, 1865. “Mrs. Morrison recalled how the body of ‘F. E. Cayle’ was found propped up against the wall of the Second Presbyterian Church by the Reverend Churchill Gibson on the morning of April 3, 1865. A placecard attached to Coyle’s chest identified him and his unit, claimed he had been ‘killed at the front on Sunday’ [April 2], and requested that he be given a proper burial. Morrison describes how this was accomplished by her husband and neighbors with a military salute provided by a company of Union soldiers who postponed their pursuit of Lee’s army in order to honor the slain Confederate. “In a autograph postscript Morrison reports that the body was transferred to Blandford Cemetery, Petersburg, in the autumn of 1865 as a result of efforts by a memorial association of which she was vice-president. [She was also the author of History of Blandford Cemetery, Petersburg, Va. [Petersburg, Virginia? 1901]; a copy of this booklet is available in the Rare Book Division of the Special Collections Department, Alderman Library.” UVa.]

Morrison, Mary E., Memoir. VHS. [CW.]

Moseley, Edward, Letters. VHS. [CW.]

Nelson, William C., Papers. U. of Mississippi, Oxford. [CW.]

Owen, Henry Thweatt, Papers. LV. CW.]

Parry, Henry Chester, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Petersburg Common Council Meeting Minutes, 178–_____. Office of the Clerk of City Council, Petersburg City Hall.

Paul, Charles Rodman, Diary, 1865-1866. 1 vol. (12o pp.) Duke. [“Union Army officer, from Belvidere (Warren Co.), N.J. Brief accounts of the siege of Petersburg; fighting at Hatcher’s Run, Va., and Fort Fisher, N.C.; marches to Appomattox Court House and Danville, Va.; the countryside through which he traveled; duty along the Richmond and Danville Railroad; and marches in review in Petersburg, Richmond, and Washington, D.C. Also included are brief social notices.” Duke]

Peabody, Mary Ann, Papers, 1840–1892. 16 items. Duke. [“Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. resident. Collection contains Peabody’s personal correspondence, with references to Northerners who criticized slavery, George Parsons Lathrop, and traveling by stagecoach. Included are letters from Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, who introduced the kindergarten system into American education; Sophia (Peabody) Hawthorne, wife of Nathaniel Hawthorne; and Mary Tyler (Peabody) Mann, wife of Horce Mann.” Duke]

Peay, Augustus Courtney, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Peebles Family, Papers, 1849–1908. 12 vols. Duke. [“Richmond and Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. residents. Collection consists of John F. Peeble’s “Hoffman,” an unfinished and apparently unpublished historical novel in the romantic tradition with the scene laid in Virginia just prior to the American Revolution, written in 1849; accounts of a Petersburg physician, 1853-1855; Anne Lee Peeble’s diaries, 1870 and 1878; and Helena Stockton Peeble’s scrapbook, 1890, and diaries, 1901-1908.” Duke]

Petersburg Benevolent Mechanic Association, Minutes of the Board of Officers. PPL. [They had the original, which has been rumored to be missing. They do have microfilm. RDW]

Peterburg Common Council Minutes, 1784 to present. Office of the Petersburg Council Clerk.

Petersburg Court Records, 1784 to present. Office of the Clerk of the Petersburg Circuit Court.

Petersburg Deed Books, 1784 to present. Office of the Clerk of the Petersburg Circuit Court, Recording Room. Petersburg Enrolling Office Exemption. VHS.

Petersburg Savings and Insurance Company, Minutes of the Board. Offices of the Petersburg Savings and Insurance Company (1960). Petersburg Will Books, 1784 to present. Office of the Clerk of the Petersburg Circuit Court, Recording Room. Phifer Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.] Phillips. James Eldred, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Phillips, Jesse, Papers, 1846–1865. 17 items. Duke. [“Resident of Lumberton (Robeson Co.), N.C. Chiefly letters about personal affairs and the Civil War in Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia. Correspondents include Levi L. Phillips, of the 2nd Regiment of North Carolina Infantry Volunteers, who describes the U.S. Navy blockade of Norfolk, Va., and Union and Confederate leadership, 1861; and Edmund M. Phillips, a Confederate soldier at Wilmington, N.C., who comments on military and naval actions there, 1862. Other subjects discussed include antebellum commodity prices in Georgia; wartime desertion; the Atlanta Campaign; the siege of Petersburg,; the 31st Regiment of North Carolina Infantry Volunteers; camp life; casualties; food; and sickness.” Duke]

Pipes, David Washington, Memoir. Historic New Orleans Collection. Also VHS. [CW.] Platt, Eleanor Beverley (Meade), Letter. VHS. [CW.]

Porter, John Richardson, Letter Book and Diaries, 1859–1868. 9 vols. Duke. [“Confederate soldier, from New Orleans, La. Letter book (1859-1868) and diaries (1859, 1863-1964, and 1865) of Porter, a member of the Washington (La.) Artillery Battalion, describe his service in Virginia; the engagements in which he participated, including the battle of Brandy Station, 1863, the battle of Gettysburg, 1863, and the siege of Petersburg, 1865; the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox; and Reconstruction in New Orleans.” Duke]

Pratt, Lieutenant Robert, Papers. Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier. [CW.]

Putnam, Samuel H. (Samuel Henry), b. 1834?, Regimental Record, 1861–1864. 1 vol. (78 pp.). Duke. [“Union Army officer, member of the 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, Co. A.; from Worcester, Mass. Regimental record of Company A, 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, written by Orderly Sergeant Samuel Henry Putnam, probably early in the 1880s. Describes mobilization of the company; fighting at Roanoke Island, New Bern, Beaufort, Kinston, and Plymouth, N.C., and at Yorktown, Bermuda Hundred, Suffolk, Port Walthal, Chesterfield Junction, Arrowfield Church, and Cold Harbor, Va.; the siege of Petersburg; and comments on camp life, picket duty, casualties, social customs, and re-enlistments. The volume includes a map and notes, and forms the basis of a more detailed version published in 1886.” Duke]

“Report of Buildings Occupied by U.S. Forces, Provost Marshall’s Office, Petersburg, Virginia, May 18, 1865,” by George C. Kibbe, colonel, Tenth New York Artillery, Record Group 292, Records of the U.S. Army, Continental, 1821–1920, Part 4, Entry 1712. National Archives. [Transcription published in Chris Calkins, Auto Tour of Civil War Petersburg 1861–1865, Petersburg: The Petersburg Museums, 2003. RDW]

“Report of Houses in Petersburg, Virginia Struck by Shells during the Siege from June 15, 1864 to April 3, 1865,” a survey conducted May 1865 by CAptain Graham and Mr. Bowden of Petersburg. Records of the District of the Nottoway, Record Group 94. National Archives. [Transcription published in Chris Calkins, Auto Tour of Civil War Petersburg 1861–1865, Petersburg: The Petersburg Museums, 2003. RDW]

Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Company, Journal, 1865-1870. 1 item. Location: Duke. [“Established in 1836. Became Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1900. Part of the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. Accounting journal entries, 1865 July - 1870 May, recording the railroad’s business with detailed financial entries and explanatory notes. Includes income, expenses, officers, employees, individuals and companies from whom goods and services were procured, finance, equipment, facilities, bridges, accidents, maintenance, and rolling stock.” Duke]

Riddleberger, Harrison Holt, Papers, 1872–1902. 689 items. Location: W&M/SL. Guide available online. VHP. [“This collection contains letters and other papers, 1872-1902, of H. H. Riddleberger (1844-1890) of Woodstock, Virginia, who retained the titles of member of the House of Delegates, 1871-1875; State Senator, 1879- 1882; and U.S. Senator, 1883-l889. Among the correspondents are: William Mahone, William E. Cameron, Winfield S. Hancock, Roscoe Conkling, Robert Toombs, Fitz-John Porter, John W. Daniel, and John Goode. There are letters from Riddleberger to his wife Emma Belew Riddleberger and to their children. Harrison Holt Riddleberger was born in Edinburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia in October 1844. He served in the Confederate cavalry. Riddleberger was a newspaper editor, studied law, and practiced in Woodstock, Virginia. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, 1871-1875; Commonwealth’s attorney of Shenandoah County; a Democratic Party elector; and was elected as a Readjuster to the United States Senate where he served from 1883-1889. Riddleberger died 24 January 1890.” W&M/SL] [Numerous letters from Mahone and Cameron, Readjuster comrades who lived in Petersburg. Several letters from Riddleberger to his wife from Petersburg, one saying that he woud speak that evening at the Academy of Music, and expected an immense audience (2 September 1881). Letter (1881) from John S. Wise in Petersburg. RDW]

Rives, Francis Everod, 1792-1861, Papers, 1817-1848. 19 items. Duke. Microform, PUL. [“U.S. Congressman from Virginia, 1837-1841, and representative of the Petersburg Railroad. Papers concerning early railroading in North Carolina and Virginia, and the fight for the possession of the Weldon bridge over the Roanoke River and seventeen miles of track belonging to the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad, the sale of which Rives believed caused the dissolution of that railroad. Also, a letter to Rives from his nephew, Colonel R. B. Heath, describing his travels in Berlin and the Revolution of 1848; and a slave sales book of Rives and his partners, Peyton Mason, Sr., and Peyton Mason, Jr.” Duke]

Roberts, Edward S., Diary. Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford.

Robertson, John Thomson, Letters, 1864–1865, and papers. ?

Robinson, Leiper M., Memoir. VHS. [CW.]

Rolfe, William Eugene, Collection. Diary available in transcript online at Private collection, Las Vegas, Nevada. [CW.]

Roller Family Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Root, George A., Papers, 1863–1865. 34 items. Duke. [“Journalist, from New Haven, Conn. Civil War letters from Union soldiers concerning camp life, scarcity and high prices of sugar and coffee; the burning of the Taylor plantation when the owner attempted to signal the Confederates; foraging, troop activities in Suffolk and Portsmouth, Va., and New Bern and Batchelor’s Creek, N.C.; granting of furloughs for voting purposes; burning of Washington, N.C.; yellow fever in New Bern; the siege of Petersburg; the re-election of Lincoln; desertions; the army of occupation in Richmond, Va.; and duty in the U.S. General Hospital, David’s Island, N.Y.” Duke]

Rowland, Thomas, Papers. Museum of the Confederacy. [CW]

Ruffin-Meade Family Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Russell, William, Diary and Papers. Duke.

Shenton, Elizabeth, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Shuford, Lowry, Collection. NC Archives & History. [CW.]

Sill, Edward, Letters, 1862–1864. 6 items. Duke, [“Confederate soldier, adjutant of the 2nd South Carolina Infantry Regiment; from Flat Rock (Kershaw District), S.C. Letters to Sill’s family, containing detailed descriptions of the battles of Fredericksburg, 1862, and Spotsylvania Court House, 1864, and the seige of Petersburg and Richmond, 1864.” Duke]

Simpson, William Skinner, Papers, Letter Books. Archives, LV.

Sixth Corps Dispatches. VHS. [CW.]

Smith, William, Executive Papers of. LV.

Snow Family Papers. Duke.

Southern Claims Commission Records, Record Group M1407. National Archives. South Side Rail Road Company, Records, 1860s–1880s. 4 items. Duke. [“Chartered 1846; completed railroad line between Petersburg and Lynchburg, Va.; absorbed Appomattox Railroad (Petersburg to City Point, Va.); merged into Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, 1870; later part of the Norfolk and Western Railroad. Registers of stockholders and bondholders and other papers.” Duke]

Southwick, Edgar, Papers. Duke.

Southworth, C. Eugene, Papers, 1858–1866. 164 items. Duke. [“Union soldier, member of the 31st Massachusetts Regiment; from Hardwick (Worcester Co.), Mass. Civil War letters of C. Eugene Southworth of the 3rd Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, Fitzroy Southworth of the 10th Massachusetts Battery, Marcus Emmons of the 21st Massachusetts Regiment, and Martin Emmons of the 6th Connecticut Regiment concerning General Benjamin F. Butler’s expedition to the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi, 1862-1864, including action at Galveston, Tex., and Port Hudson, La.; troop movements and artillery engagements in Maryland and Virginia, 1862-1865; camp life and troop movements in Burnside’s division on the coast of North Carolina; duty on the South Carolina coast, 1861-1862; fighting in the peninsula of Virginia during the advance on Petersburg, Va., 1864; Union troop movements in Tennessee, 1864; and general comments on camp life, economic conditions, and supplies.” Duke]

Spencer, Olivia E., Papers, 1840–1933. 175 items. Duke. [“Born Olivia Patteson; married Samuel M. Spencer; resident of Buckingham County, Va. Letters to Olivia from relatives, chiefly concerning family and personal matters. The Civil War period is represented by letters from her brother, George B. Patteson, describing life in the 21st Virginia Infantry, his morale, and trench warfare before Petersburg, Va. There is some genealogical data in letters of ca. 1902-1911.” Duke] Spotswood, Dandridge, Papers, 1585-1939. 0.25 cu. feet. Location: LV. Guide available online. VHP. [“An engineer, Dandridge Spotswood of Petersburg, Virginia, collected abstracts, extracts, and transcripts of documents concerning the history of Virginia and of the United States Many early letters were written from Jamestown and describe life there. Papers, 1585-1939, of Dandridge Spotswood (1872-1939) of Petersburg, Virginia, consisting of diary, 11 January-6 February 1849, of William Francisco Spotswood (1827-1895) of Petersburg, Virginia; and of abstracts, extracts, and transcripts of agreements, bills of lading, commissions, deeds, genealogical notes, judicial records, letters, military orders, and promissory notes concerning the history of Virginia and of the United States. Subjects include but are not limited to: Virginia history from the 17th to the 20th century; United States history from the 18th and 19th centuries, including the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Civil War; history of California, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, and Tennessee; the United States Navy; agriculture, genealogy, shipping, social life and customs, and tobacco. Prominent correspondents include: Aaron Burr (1756-1836), Jefferson Davis (1808-1889), Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), Stonewall Jackson (1824-1863), Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Philip Kearny (1815-1862), Robert E. Lee (1807-1870), Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), Alexander Spotswood (1676-1740), Alexander Spotswood (1746-1818), Benjamin Stoddert (1751-1813), John Tyler (1790-1862), and George Washington (1732-1799). Families mentioned prominently are the Dunlop family and the Spotswood family. Refer to the on-line finding aid for complete list of items and correspondents. Items 138-146 are original documents. Dandridge Spotswood was born 17 May 1872 in Petersburg, Virginia to William F. Spotswood (1827-1895) and Isabella Matoaca Dunlop Spotswood (1848-1922). He attended Pantops Academy near Charlottesville, Virginia, Hampden-Sidney College from 1893 to 1896, and Cornell University of Michigan. An industrial and mining engineer, Spotswood spent much of his career in New York and travelling about the United States and Europe. In 1924, he returned to Petersburg and devoted himself to history and genealogy. Spotswood died 27 November 1939 in Petersburg, and was buried in Blandford Cemetery. ” LV]

Spotswood, Dandridge, Papers, 1585-1939. 0.225 cubic feet, 233 folders. UVa. Guide available online. VHP. [“Papers, 1585-1939, of Dandridge Spotswood (1872-1939) of Petersburg, Virginia, consisting of diary, 11 January-6 February 1849, of William Francisco Spotswood (1827-1895) of Petersburg, Virginia; and of abstracts, extracts, and transcripts of agreements, bills of lading, commissions, deeds, genealogical notes, judicial records, letters, military orders, and promissory notes concerning the history of Virginia and of the United States. Subjects include but are not limited to: Virginia history from the 17th to the 20th century; United States history from the 18th and 19th centuries, including the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Civil War; history of California, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, and Tennessee; the United States Navy; agriculture, genealogy, shipping, social life and customs, and tobacco. Prominent correspondents include: Aaron Burr (1756-1836), Jefferson Davis (1808-1889), Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), Stonewall Jackson (1824-1863), Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Philip Kearny (1815-1862), Robert E. Lee (1807-1870), Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), Alexander Spotswood (1676-1740), Alexander Spotswood (1746-1818), Benjamin Stoddert (1751-1813), John Tyler (1790-1862), and George Washington (1732-1799). Families mentioned prominently are the Dunlop family and the Spotswood family. Refer to the on-line finding aid for complete list of items and correspondents. Items 138-146 are original documents.” UVa.]

Spotswood, Martha Dunlop, Papers, 1784-1856. 4 leaves and 8 pages. UVa. Guide available online. VHP. [“Papers, 1764-1856, collected by Martha Dunlop Spotswood (1885-1981) of Petersburg, Virginia, consisting of: d) receipt, dated 21 October 1853, from J. W. Cuningham, secretery, King’s College, London, England, to Colin Mckenzie Dunlop (1836-1864) of Petersburg, Virginia; e) invitation to the funeral of Jane P. Osborne (d. 1836) of Petersburg; f) a letter, dated 1 January 1850, from George Bolling (1808-1875) of Petersburg to Rebecca B. Colquhoun (1795-1879) of Petersburg, concerning the division of the slaves of her mother’s estate for hiring out; g) will, dated 16 August 1844 and recorded 18 September 1841 [1844] of Donald Mackenzie (1764-1844) of Petersburg; h) list of securities held by an unidentified individual, 1850-1856; i) tombstone inscriptions, 1764-1837 at the Oaks in Amelia County, Virginia; and j) tombstone inscriptions, 1764-1861, at Roslin in Petersburg, Virginia. Item a is filed and catalogued in the Bible records; items b and c are filed and catalogued in the genealogical charts; and item k is filed and catalogued in the business records.” UVa.]

Stacy Family Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Stapp, Joseph D., Letters. VHS, [CW.]

Stephenson, William Rufus, Papers. NC Archives & History. [CW.]

Story, Elliott Lemuel, Diary. VHS. [CW.]

Stuart Family Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Stuart, John Lane, Papers, 1852–1927. [bulk 1861–1870]. 269 items. Duke. [“Confederate soldier, member of the 49th Regiment, North Carolina Infantry; and later a schoolteacher in Montgomery County, N.C. Principally Stuart’s letters while serving in the Confederate Army, describing camp life, food and clothing, marches and engagements around Richmond and Petersburg, Va., and in eastern North Carolina, prices of horses, and the inefficiency of Confederate administration and military leadership. Also included are letters from his step-father, John Harper, describing conditions at home and depredations by deserters and conscripts in hiding; letters from his cousin, Haywood Nall, of Indiana; school attendance records and book orders relating to his teaching after the war, especially in Montgomery County, N.C.; and a history of Montgomery County, 1927.” Duke]

Taintor, Henry E., Papers, 1856–1864. 46 items. Duke. [“Union soldier, from Hampden (Windham Co.), Conn. Letters concerning Taintor’s service in the Union Army as a member of the 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery, describing camp life and daily routine; experiences in the Bermuda Line on the James River in Virginia, 1864; life in the siege line at Petersburg, Va., 1864; the operation of various kinds of artillery shells and guns; and visits from President Abraham Lincoln and Senators Zachariah Chandler and William Sprague.” Duke]

Tanner, Evans, Ledger, 1843–1863. 4 vols. Duke. [“Petersburg (Dinwiddie Co.), Va. merchant. Collection contains four volumes of accounts of a general merchant.” Duke]

Taylor, Evelyn H., Letters.

Taylor, Rosalia, Papers. Duke.

Todd, Westwood A., “Reminiscences.” UNC/CH. [CW.]

Trahern, William Eustace, Memoir. VHS. [CW.]

Turner, John R., Papers. Duke.

United Daughters of the Confederacy Collection. Museum of the Confederacy. [Berkeley Minor, “Some Glimpses of the Siege of Petersburg, Partly from Recollections but Mainly from Letters and a Journal Written There.”]

United States Office of the Adjutant General. Case Files of Applications from Former Confederates for Presidential Pardons, Record Group 94. National Archives.

Vass, Rev. L.C., Diary and Papers. Museum of the Confederacy.

Venable, Charles Scott, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Venable, George Henry, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Verdery, Eugene, Jr., Papers, 1859–1970. 174 items. Duke. [“Confederate soldier, from Augusta (Richmond Co.), Ga. Papers of Eugene Verdery and of James Paul Verdery relating mostly to their service in the Confederate Army. Letters from Eugene Verdery of the 63rd Georgia Regiment concern camp life near Savannah, Ga.; a visit by General Robert E. Lee to Camp Harrison, Ga.; the C.S.S. Atlanta; a visit by Jefferson Davis to Savannah, Ga., in 1863; and the strength of the fortifications around Savannah, 1864. Letters from James Paul Verdery of the 48th Georgia Regiment relate to religious services in camp; camp life in Virginia; fighting at Beaver Dam Station in Virginia; the Peninsular Campaign; and fighting around Petersburg, Va., in 1864.” Duke]

Vincent, John Bell, Diary. VHS [CW.]

Virginia Education Association Minutes. Offices of the Virginia Education Association (1960).

Voris, Alvin Coe, Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Wainwright, P.F., Papers, 1767-1890. [bulk 1801-1890]. 290 items. Duke. [“Banker and churchwarden, of Boston, Mass. Correspondence and other papers of Peter Wainwright, Jr., and other members of the Wainwright family, concerning slavery, punishment of slaves, and the education of a slave who wanted to learn to read; the savings Bank of Boston; the Provident Institution of Savings; education of women in the early nineteenth century; galvanism; the Episcopal Church; the rebuilding of Petersburg after a fire in 1816; tobacco prices and tobacco manufacturing in Kentucky; the population of New Orleans, La.; the Democratic Party; the administration of Franklin Pierce; Lewis Cass; and the election of 1856. Other items include an inventory and appraisment of the estate of Dr. Job Godfrey of Taunton, Mass.; invoices, 1816, showing import and export duties; circular letter regarding the founding of a society for the relief of needy English immigrants; an indenture; and wills.” Duke]

Walkup, Samuel H., Journal, 1862–1865. 1 vol. Duke. Original, Southern Historical Collection, UNC. [CW.]

[“Lawyer, and Confederate soldier in the 48th North Carolina Regiment; from Mecklenburg County, N.C. Typed copy of the journal of Samuel Hoey Walkup describing the formation of the 48th North Carolina Regiment and election of field officers; the Peninsular Campaign; the battles of second Manassas (Bull Run), Antietam, and Fredericksburg; the siege of Petersburg; various Confederate and Union generals and units; camp life; food; pay; sickness; care of the wounded, physicians, and hospitals; Confederate bonds; commodity prices; chaplains; refugees; fraternization with the enemy; desertion; courts-martial; his arrest and release; Ulysses S. Grant; and Zebulon Baird Vance. The original manuscript is in the Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.” Duke]

[There seem to be other paers as well in the collectio at UNC, though perhaps not relevant to Petersburg. RDW]

Warthen, George W., Papers, 1858–1893. 20 items. Duke. [“Confederate Army officer; from Sparta (Hancock Co.), Ga. Letters from Warthen, a captain in the Confederate Army, commenting at length on military operations around New Bern, N.C., Charleston, S.C., and Petersburg, Va.; a petition from his soldiers asking him to resign; and two miscellaneous papers.” Duke]

Weed, Theodore H., Papers, 1861–1865. 21 items. Duke. [“Union officer, member of the 10th New York Cavalry; from Syracuse, N.Y. Papers of Major Weed including letters to his sister describing the capture of a band of Confederate soldiers near Baltimore, Md., in 1862; troop movements around Warrington and Culpeper, Va., in 1863; the battle of Cold Harbor, Va., in 1864; and action around Petersburg, Va., following Cold Harbor. There are also muster rolls; official reports; general and special orders; and a list of prisoners captured at Morrisville, Va., in 1864.” Duke]

Weisiger, David Addison, Papers. VHS, [CW.]

White, Albert M., Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Whitefield Family Papers. NC Archives & History. [CW.]

Whitehorne, J.E., Diary. PPL (1960). UNC/CH. [CW.]

Wilkerson, James King, Papers. Duke. Williams, Edmund Jones, Letters. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Williams, Fatima Massey, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Williams, Lucy Tunstall Alston, Papers. UNC/CH [CW.]

Williams, the Reverend Henry, Papers 1856-1901. Special Collections and Archives, Johnston Memorial Library, Virginia State University.

Wills, William Henry, Papers. UNC/CH. [CW.]

Wingard, Simon P., Correspondence, 1841–1867. 103 items. Duke. [“Confederate soldier, member of the 5th South Carolina Infantry Regiment; from Lexington (Lexington Co.), S.C. Correspondence of Simon Wingard with his wife, Marie, and his brother, James Samuel Wingard, a soldier in the 9th South Carolina Infantry Regiment, describing life in Lexington, S.C.; life in army camps at Grahamville, Pocataligo, and McPhersonville, S.C.; the Peninsular Campaign in Virginia, 1862; the siege of Petersburg, Va., 1864-1865; desertion in the Confederate and Union armies; and Union sentiment in South Carolina, 1864. Also contains a short entry diary of Thomas F. Harrington of the 10th Massachusetts Regiment, U.S.A., 1862, and of James S. Wingard, 1862.” Duke]

Wise Family Papers. VHS. [CW.]

Woods, Francis H., Correspondence, 1863–1865. 17 items. Duke. [“Union soldier with the 137th New York Regiment. Civil War correspondence of Woods writing from Fortress Monroe (Hampton, Va.) and the siege of Petersburg, Va., describing his duties as cook, camp life, and prayer meetings.” Duke]

Wright Family Papers, 1853–1882. 89 items. Duke. [“Residents of Cleveland County, N.C. Correspondence exchanged between members of the family of Benjamin and Elizabeth Wright of Cleveland County, N.C. Subjects discussed include the 48th and the 56th North Carolina Infantry regiments, C.S.A. Army, the Civil War in North Carolina and Virginia, the siege of Petersburg, 1864, desertion among Confederate troops, and morale of the Confederate soldiers and civilians.” Duke]

Theses and Dissertations:

Bailey, James H. “A History of the Diocese of Richmond from Its Establishment, 1820. to the Episcopate of Bishop Gibbons, 1872.” Washington: PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, 1953.

Barnes, Todd A. “Law Reform in Virignia’s First Colony: A Comparative Analysis of the Criminal Codes of Jamestown and Seventeent-Century England.” Master’s thesis, Ball State University, 1995. 131 leqves, bibliography.

Booth, Albert Nathaniel. “Slave Hiring in Petersburg during the 1850s.” MA Thesis. Petersburg: Virginia State University, 1998.

Boyd, Robin. “Gone But Not Forgotten: Petersburg Virginia’s Lost Landmarks.” Richmond: master’s thesis, 1981.

Brockwell, Henry Buckius. “History of Secondary Education in Petersburg, Virginia.” Charlottesville: master’s thesis, University of Virginia, 1939.

Cameron, Timothy. “The Role of Plant Foods among Native Americans in Seventeenth-Century Virginia: A Historical and Botanical Study.” Old Dominion University, 1996.

Edwards, Lucious. “Free Black Property Holders in Petersburg, Virginia: 1865–1874.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, History, Virginia State University, 1977.

Fausz, John Frederick. “Patterns of Settlement in the James River Basin, 1607–1642.” Master’s thesis, William & MAry, 1971.

Fausz, John Frederick. “The Powhatan Uprisings of 1622: A Historical Study of Ethnocentrism and Cultural Conflict.” PhD diss., William & Mary, 1977.

Fleetwood, George Barham. “Southside Virginia in the Middle Period, With Specific Reference to the Relations between Local Government and Slavery.” Unpublished M.A. thesis. Wake Forest, 1940. VSU.

Grady, Timothy Paul. “On the Path to Slavery: Infdentured Servitude in Barbados and Virginia in the Seventeenth Century.” Master’s thesis, VPI, 2000.

Grosfils, Catherine Howe. “The Chimney Fireplace in Colonial Virginia.” ODU, 1988. 122 leaves.

Hairston, Leon T. “Reaction to the 1954 Desegregation Decision, As Seen in Five Virginia Newspapers, 1954-1957.

” Unpublished masters thesis in history. Virginia State University, 1974. Hartzell, Lawrence Leroy. “Black Life in Petersburg, Virginia, 1870–1902.” M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1985. Hawkins, John, Jr. “The Development of Bishop Payne Divinity School.” Unpublished masters thesis, Virginia State University, 1946.

Hecht, Irene W.D. “The Virginia Colony, 1607–1640.” PhD diss., University of Washington, 1969.

Horning, Audrey J. “‘A Verie Fit Place to Erect a Great Cittie’: Comparative Contextual Analysis of Archaeological Jamestown.” PhD diss., Ujniversity of Pennsylvania, 1995.

Jackson, Luther Porter. “The Virginia Free Negro Farmer and Property Owner 1830–1860.” A Part of a Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Division of the Social Sciences in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Libraries, 1939.

Jeffreys, Richard Langston. “A History of Virginia State College for Negroes, Ettrick, Virginia.” Ann Arbor: master’s thesis, University of Michigan, 1939. Kukla, Jon Keith. “Political Institutions in Virginia, 1619–1660.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 1980. Published with a new preface and an index, New York: Garland Publishing, 1989. 264 pp.

Lewis, Kenneth E. : The Jamestown Frontier: An Archaeological Study of Colonization.” PhD Diss., University of Oklahoma, 1875. [“An ethnographic model of socio-cultural change which the author uses to explain English adaptation to the seventeenth-century Virginia frontier. Archaeological data from Jamestown is used to examine cultural patterns. The result is the “frontier model,” an interaction of a variety of factors.” 477 leaves, illustrations, maps, bibliography. University of Oklahoma]

Loetterlle, Lynn Ellen. “The Vascular Flora of Jamestown Island, James CIty County, Virginia.” Master’s thesis, William & Mary, 1970.

McCarthyr, FInbarr. “A Rage for Oder: The Ideological Implications of Form in Early Southern Writing.” PhD Diss., Tulane, 1988. [“Selected Roanoke and Jamestown writings dominate this study of the form of early Southern writing, which proposes that form has ideological implication. Jamestown texts suggest that duplicating the English social structure will fail because that structure cannot adapt to the complexities of American experience. Overall, the texts show a tendency to comedy at times of severe cultural stress.” 343 pp. Tulane]

Moore, Judy. “Antebellum Virginia’s Economy as Seen in Petersburg and Staunton.” M.A. thesis. Petersburg, VA: Virginia State University, 1998.

Norris, Ethel Maureen. “Music in the Black and White Community in Petersburg, Virginia, , 1650-1900.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Ohio State University, 1994. Virginia Location: VSU.

O’Brien, Warren Gregory. “The Powhatan Chiefdom until 1622: Dynamism and Opportunism on the Virginia Coaastal Plain.” Master’s thesis. Ja,es Madison University, 1994. [98 leaves, bibliography.]

Parish, Shirly. “The Fur and Skin Trade of Colonial Virginia.” Old Dominion University, 1972. Powell, Willie Hugh. “The Negro in the Virginia Legislature During the Readjuster Period, 1879-1882.” Unpublished maters thesis. Virginia State University, 1966.

Pritchett, William H. “The Relationship Between Black Voting and Desegregation in Petersburg, Virginia From 1860-1974.” Unpublished M.A. thesis in History. Virginia State University, 1976.

Prown, Jonathan. “A Cultural Analysis of Furniture making in Petersburg, Virginia, 1760–1820.” Master’s thesis, W&M, 1992.

Ryder, Robin L. “Free African-American Archaeology: Interpreting an Antebellum Farmstead.” Unpublished Thesis. Williamsburg: College of William and Mary, 1991.

Saval, Wallace Michael. “Montage of a City Under Siege: Petersburg, 1864 to 1865.” Unpublished M.A. thesis in History. Virginia State University, May 1971.

Singleton, Paul L., Jr. “The Keziah Affair of 1858 And Its Impact Upon Underground Railroad Activities in Eastern Virginia.” Unpublished M.A. thesis in History. Virginia State University, 1967.

Stephens, Travis J.L. “Participation of Negro Troops in the Battle of the Crater, July 30, 1864.” Unpublished M.A. thesis in History. Virginia State University, 1967.

Tilton, Robert Steven. “American Lavinia: The Pocahontas narrative in Ante-bellum America.” PhD diss., 1992.

Watkins, Sarah Howard. “The Negro Building: African-American Representation at the 1907 Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition.” Master’s thesis, William & Mary, 1994. [183 leaves, illustrations, bibliography.]

Williams, Oscar Renal, III. “The Civil Rights Movement in Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia During 1960.” Unpublished M.A. thesis. Virginia State University, 1990.


Grant’s Petersburg Progress.
[Petersburg, April 1865.]

Index-Appeal. [Petersburg, 1873–1922.]

Richmond Enquirer. [Richmond, at least 1864–1865.]

Richmond Examiner. [Richmond, at least 1864–1865.]

Richmond Whig. [Richmond, at least 1864–1865.]

The Daily Express. [Petersburg, at least 1864–1865.]

The Daily Register. [Petersburg, at least 1864.]


he Evening Progress. [Petersburg, 1888–1922.]

The Petersburg Appeal. [Petersburg, 1872–1873.]

The Petersburg Index. [Petersburg, 1865–1873.]

The Progress-Index. [Petersburg, 1922–.]

The Richmond Dispatch. [Richmond, at least 1864–1865.]

The Southern Farmer. 6 vols.: Vols. 1-6, 1854-1959. Duke. [Weekly newspaper published in Petersburg by Charles LeRoi at least through 1859. Edited by Thomas S. Pleasants and Anderson C. Morton. “Devoted to agriculture and the kindred arts, and to the social and intellectual improvement of the agricultural classes.” Organ of the Union Agricultural Society of Virginia and North Carolina.” Duke] [Charles LeRoi was a Petersburg printer and bookbinder. Thomas S. Pleasants by 1959 was the Librarian for the Petersburg Library Association, which opened its large new building at the northeast corner of Sycamore and Bollingbrook in 1859. The Union Agricultural Society conducted an annual fair in Petersburg, and operated a Model Farm a few miles to the west. RDW]

List of Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Fanilies residents of Petersburg. Richmond: Eleanor Brockenbrough Library, Museum of the Confederacy. Miller, William, ed. Civil War April 1998. The Missile. “Siege of Petersburg Issue.” Petersburg: Petersburg High School, 1948. The New York Herald. 18 June 1864. Petersburg Progress. 5 April 1865. The Progress Index. “Women established hospital here to combat toll of war.” 20 June 1932. Scroggs, Joseph. “The Civil War Times Illustrated Collection.” Carlisle Barrack, U.S. Army Military History Institute. Stephenson, Jennie. “My father and his household, before, during and after the war.” 1897.

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